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Italian Yearbook of Human Rights 2012

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Edited By Centro interdipartimentale di ricera

The Italian Yearbook of Human Rights 2012 confirms and consolidates the structure and aims already set forth in the 2011 edition. Year by year, this series examines the steps that Italy has made to adapt its legislation and policies to international human rights law and to comply with commitments voluntarily assumed by the Italian Government at the international level.
The 2012 issue surveys the activities of the relevant national and local Italian actors, including governmental bodies, civil society organisations and university. It also presents reports and recommendations that have been addressed to Italy by international monitoring bodies within the framework of the United Nations, the Council of Europe or the European Union. Finally, the Yearbook provides a selection of international and national case-law that casts light on Italy’s position vis-à-vis international obligations.
The Italian Agenda of Human Rights that is set out in the volume focuses on immediate and long-term measures that should be taken to ensure human rights for all.
The Yearbook is edited by the Interdepartmental Centre for Human Rights and the Rights of Peoples at the University of Padua, in cooperation with the UNESCO Chair in Human Rights, Democracy and Peace at the same University. The Centre, established in 1982 with the support of the Region of Veneto, carries out research and education following a global and interdisciplinary approach. It hosts the Jean Monnet Centre of Excellence on intercultural dialogue and human rights.

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PART I. IMPLEMENTATION OF INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LAW IN ITALY

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PART I IMPLEMENTATION OF INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LAW IN ITALY 55 International Human Rights Law The first Part of the Yearbook is divided into two chapters. The first is devoted to the review of the major international human rights instru- ments that Italy has ratified as well as to the identification of both those international instruments signed but not ratified by the Country and those that have not been subjected to any initiative of acceptance yet. The framework of Italy’s international obligations takes into considera- tion the universal conventions adopted within the system of the United Nations, the conventions of the Council of Europe as well as the Euro- pean Union treaties and secondary law. Accordingly, the information provided are preliminary to the presentation of the national normative apparatus – Constitution, national and regional laws – which is the subject of the following chapter. There are 132 international legal instruments in force dedicated to protecting and promoting human rights, according to the listing annually edited by UNESCO (Major Human Rights Instruments). Among them, 60 are universal in scope and 72 are regional, whereof 39 have been adopted by the Council of Europe (CoE), 11 by the African Union (AU) and 22 by the Organisation of American States (OAS). This legal framework is enriched by several other instruments of soft law, which help orienting States’ policies, often with a high degree of effectiveness. In addition to the conventions indicated by UNESCO, the Yearbook lists other legal instruments that have particular relevance for the...

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