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Borders, Mobilities and Migrations

Perspectives from the Mediterranean, 19–21st Century


Edited By Lisa Anteby-Yemini, Virginie Baby-Collin and Sylvie Mazzella

This book explores changes in the social, economic and political processes underpinning the mechanisms for the management of human mobility and cohabitation in the Mediterranean region, while suggesting comparisons with the situation in the Americas.
It considers the public policies that introduce such mechanisms at state, region or city level, and also explores the way that populations adapt to, breach or find ways of working around these systems.
The volume also attempts to evaluate the extent to which the reactions of the populations concerned can influence such systems. Relying on a historical perspective and covering a broad period of time from the nineteenth to the twenty-first century, this book questions the increasing influence of processes born out of globalization upon present readjustments of mobility and territorial configurations.
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Illegal Migration of Italians from the Liberal Age to Freedom of Movement Within the European Community. Geographic Directions, Public Attitudes and the Strategies of Migrants (Sandro Rinauro)


← 24 | 25 → Illegal Migration of Italians from the Liberal Age to Freedom of Movement Within the European Community

Geographic Directions, Public Attitudes and the Strategies of Migrants


Illegal expatriation in liberal Italy

Illegal migration was widespread in Italy during the classical era, during the Middle Ages and in pre-Unification Italy, but the scale of the phenomenon and the awareness that migrants and authorities had of it varied over the ages. This was because it was only when public power was strong and able to control the borders that laws on cross-border circulation of subjects and foreigners could be emanated and attempts made to control it (Borruso, 2001; Sanfilippo, 2011; Rinauro, 2009).

Even so, illegal emigration of Italians reached considerable proportions only in the second half of the 19th century. This was because the total exodus came on a massive scale (surpassing 100,000 expatriations per year as from the 1870s) and also because the building up of nation states in the West had led to a consolidation of the legal distinction between citizens and foreigners. Furthermore, the material instruments for ascertaining this difference had become readily available in the form of passports, identity cards with anthropometric data and, later, with photographs. From this time on, as never before, “papers” (expatriation documents) became the real obsession of migrants (Costa, 1999-2001; Torpey, 2000; Green, Weil, 2007; Franzina, 2005). Access to and residence in immigrant-receiving countries was no longer granted on...

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