Perspectives from the Mediterranean, 19–21st Century
It considers the public policies that introduce such mechanisms at state, region or city level, and also explores the way that populations adapt to, breach or find ways of working around these systems.
The volume also attempts to evaluate the extent to which the reactions of the populations concerned can influence such systems. Relying on a historical perspective and covering a broad period of time from the nineteenth to the twenty-first century, this book questions the increasing influence of processes born out of globalization upon present readjustments of mobility and territorial configurations.
Rendering People Illegal and Invisible. Illegal Migrants and Daily Life (United States, Spain) (Virginie Baby-Collin)
← 214 | 215 → Rendering People Illegal and Invisible
Illegal Migrants and Daily Life (United States, Spain)
The ‘migration planet’ (Simon, 2008), in a context of world mobilities, is not in fact an era in which everyone can become mobile (Urry, 2005). Even though the concept of free circulation for all is well-established for certain regions, the introduction of ‘open frontiers’ is nevertheless accompanied by greater rigidity at various levels: not only at regional borders (Europe) and at national frontiers (United States), but also inside countries. This is known as a ‘de-nationalization’ of migration controls, “in, down, and out”, i.e. inland from the national frontier, downward to lower-level government agencies and outwards beyond exterior boundaries (externalization of controls) (Guiraudon and Joppke, 2001). The financial, technical and human resources required to carry out border controls have increased massively, as have the numbers of expulsions of illegal migrants.1 Policies contribute to the creation of barriers between those who have the right to enter and those who do not, or who have only partial access: limited either in terms of time (visas) or in terms of rights (entry permits but not work permits, residence but not vote, etc.). This leads to a complex system of different statutes which can change over time, from one place to another, and even within families themselves. These restrictions on the people’s ability to move create legal borders even in the towns where migrants live, to the point where the stigma of...
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