From the Charter of Fundamental Rights to the Crisis, the State of the Art
As Europe struggles with the most profound economic and social crises in recent history, what happens to the promises of freedom, democracy, equality and respect for the inviolable and inalienable rights of the human person proclaimed in the Preamble of the Treaty on European Union? How does the European Union intend to demonstrate its commitment to fundamental social rights at a time of widespread deregulation and an increasingly precarious labour market? How can we further enhance the democratic and efficient functioning of European institutions when there is a growing distance between citizens and political elites?
This publication is based on papers given at the international conference «Citizenship and Solidarity in the European Union – from the Charter of Fundamental Rights to the Crisis: The State of the Art», which took place in the School of Law at the University of Minho, Portugal, in May 2012. The line-up of contributors includes scholars from southern and northern Europe and Brazil, and together the papers constitute a lively and productive debate about the future of Europe.
Development, Competition and Global Administrative Law (Marcílio Toscano Franca-Filho)
Marcílio Toscano FRANCA-FILHO*
Federal University of Paraiba, Brazil
Damián Ortega (1967), Cosmic Thing (2002)Disassembled 1989 Volkswagen Beetle and C-print. 265 × 276 × 296 in. (673.1 × 701 × 751.8 cm) C-print: 16 × 20 in. (40.6 × 50.8 cm). The Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles. Purchased with funds provided by Eugenio López and the Jumex Fund for Contemporary Latin American Art.
“Time is the substance we are made of”, said many times argentinian writer Jorge Luis Borges.1 According to Greek mythology, retold by Belgian philosopher François Ost, the time that passes and amazes can be understood in, at least, two different ways: the time of Chronos and the time of the Hours (or Horae).2 The allegory of Chronos’ time is about the time of division, of rhythm. It is the time to capture the immediate moment, to which all of us are attached with no possible connection with past or future. According to Ost, this is “the time of the tyrant, which is gone in a barren present, with no memory nor project”.3 The time of the Hours, however, is different from the time of Chronos. Daughters of Zeus, god of the world, and Themis, goddess of justice, the Hours (Eunomia, Diké, Eirénê) personify the harmonious and constant progression of the seasons and represent capital civic virtues: the multiplicity of changes and the pleasant periodical changes. This text is guided by the time of the Hours; it does...
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