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European Parties and the European Integration Process, 1945–1992

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Edited By Lucia Bonfreschi, Giovanni Orsina and Antonio Varsori

The present volume brings together three different traditions of historical study: national politics, European integration, and political parties. Since the 1980s, there has been an enlargement of the scope of political history. This attempt to transcend national boundaries can intersect with the new strands of European integration history, paying much more attention to transnational perspectives and forces. The chapters comprised in this book attempt to forge a dialogue between these new methodologies and the study of political parties in manifold ways. Firstly, in the study of party foreign and European politics – how parties have perceived themselves as belonging not only to the national political game, but also to a wider transnational, and European one. Secondly, party history can transcend national boundaries through the study of international and European party cooperation. Thirdly, it can offer worthwhile avenues of study on how political families deal with European integration not along ideological cleavages but along national ones. This volume fills a crucial gap of European historiography by comparing parties’ discourses/platforms/policies on European integration and by developing national, comparative and transnational approaches.
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Internationalism and Europeanism in the Ideology of European Liberalism, 1945-1989

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Giovanni ORSINA

Professor, Luiss-Guido Carli University, Rome

This essay stems from research on the ideology of post-war European liberalism, as it emerges from the resolutions and documents of liberal international (but pre-eminently European) organisations. Liberal international organisations have not been studied much.1 This is to a certain extent understandable, given that they have wielded very little actual power, if any. However, my argument here is that, at least as far as ideology is concerned, they can provide an interesting and reliable guide to post-1945 European liberalism. More interesting and reliable than national liberal parties, whose ideology is likely to have been distorted by their political contingencies; and than individual thinkers, whose value as representatives of liberalism can be – and almost invariably is – contested. The Liberal International (LI), founded in 1947, although in principle a global institution, was until the 1970s almost exclusively European. It was only after the creation of the European Federation of Liberals and Democrats (ELD) in 1976 that the LI actually expanded beyond the borders of the Old Continent. It is therefore reasonable to use LI resolutions and documents as a guide to the liberals’ attitude towards the ← 277 | 278 → European integration process until the mid-1970s, shifting our attention to the ELD after that date. The following pages are organised as follows: the first section provides a general introduction to the internationalism of international liberalism in post-1945 Europe; the second is devoted to the Europeanism of international liberalism, both in abstract...

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