Une évaluation des interactions entre politiques culturelles nationales et européenne d’un point de vue européen
Abstract – An Evaluation of the Interactions between National and European Cultural Policies from a European Perspective
In the cultural area, national policies can be fully qualified as ‘policies’ and are supported by significant budgets, whereas the European one consists in complementary actions with limited means, any legislative harmonization being excluded. As regards the interactions between the two levels of power, the national impact on the initiatives and the management of the EU is more important than the reverse process. Nevertheless, the interaction is more balanced for the audiovisual policy than for the other aspects of culture. Both of these two dimensions are now merged in the current new programme Creative Europe (2014-2020). Anyway, the EU cultural action is effective through several other programmes, notably regarding the regional and cohesion policies, which have huge amounts in the EU budget and reveal other types of interactions. It is then possible to design a rich and contrasted ‘landscape’ of the European cultural contributions, which sometimes appear where they are not expected, but it remains very difficult to assess its full impact. As long as the Member States will wrongly consider that, for each of them corresponds a well identified culture ‘in itself’ to be preserved before any interaction with the others, the Union will not have a real cultural Policy. This conception ignores that the cultural fact could be transnational, subnational or un-national. It projects the false idea according to which a sort of ‘super-culture’...
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