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Modelling Dual-Use Trade Control Systems


Odette Jankowitsch-Prevor, Quentin Michel and Sylvain Paile

The Chaudfontaine Group was established in 2010 as an annual two-day gathering of young Europeans with diverse academic backgrounds, including lawyers, economists and political scientists, from relevant national authorities, European institutions, scientific centres and industry. Its members are invited to discuss their respective viewpoints on the European trade of sensitive goods, focusing on the strategic issues confronting this sector in a rapidly evolving international context.
In December 2013, at its fourth conference, the Group met with African experts to debate the question of how African countries control the trade of dual-use items and the challenges they face in their search for effective regulations. The objective was to study whether international norms and experiences, pertaining both to states and to organisations, could be used as standardised models for African countries affected by unique security concerns.
This volume analyses and discusses those trade control systems which could be described as «models» and might therefore serve as a standard to be exported to the African countries in question. The debate is multi-levelled and studies the possibility of setting universal, regional or even-sub-regional norms.
The contributors to this book, who display a wide variety of expertise, call for the adoption of norms which they argue have the potential to reconcile freedom of trade with international security, without presuming that these norms should be universal.
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Implementation of the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540 in Nigeria (Shamsideen B. Elegba)


Shamsideen B. ELEGBA

Professor – Department of Physics, University of Abuja

In April 2004, the United Nations (UN) Security Council unanimously passed Resolution 1540, which is intended to reduce the threat of terrorist groups gaining access to weapons of mass destruction (WMD). The resolution mandates that all States adopt and enforce “appropriate effective laws which prohibit any non-State actor to manufacture, acquire, possess, develop, transport, transfer or use nuclear, chemical or biological weapons and their means of delivery”, as well as attempts to engage in such activities, assist, or finance them. The resolution requires States to establish export controls for such weapons and the means of their delivery, and “related materials”. It also requires States to implement effective export controls and physical protection measures, in order to prevent the diversion of sensitive materials and technologies.1 The scope of the resolution, encompassing not only weapons of mass destruction but also the means of their delivery and related materials, makes it one of the broadest legal instruments in the non-proliferation field. It is also legally binding on all UN Member States, owing to its passage under Chapter VII of the UN charter. Since its adoption, Resolution 1540 has been widely recognised as a useful multilateral tool to help prevent the acquisition of weapons of mass destruction by non-State actors, and to facilitate the exchange of information and assistance among States.2

← 87 | 88 →It is important to note here that there is no unique definition of the term...

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