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French in and out of France

Language Policies, Intercultural Antagonisms and Dialogue

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Edited By Kamal Salhi

This book examines policy planning and implementation and language variation in the realm of intercultural communication in France, Europe, the Americas, Australia, North and Sub-Saharan Africa and the Middle East. The book aims to discern trends in the development of the capacity of Francophone speakers to engage in dialogue across linguistic boundaries. Each study in the volume seeks to evaluate and analyse the antagonistic situations that have resulted from colonial culture and the post-independence hegemonic cultures. These situations are investigated through their expression in the French language and the languages with which it coexists in the countries considered here. The expertise of linguists and language specialists in this volume provides formalist and structural insights and an innovative phenomenology of language and newly available quantitative and qualitative studies of synchronic language. These methodologies are applied to a wide range of subject areas: law, history, literature, politics and society. Taken as a whole the book offers a fresh perspective on the issues surrounding French within and beyond France in the post-colonial and Francophone contexts.

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Richard Wakely - French in Belgium: Belgian French, French Belgium 167

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RICHARD WAKELY French in Belgium: Belgian French, French Belgium There were early examples of Frenchlfrancien being used in both the Walloon and Flemish areas of the territory that is now Belgium, 1 i.e. the linguistic boundary has never stopped the use of French from spreading north.2 The oldest clzarte in French/francien was drawn up in Chievres (Hainaut) in 1194.3 As a written language and langue de culture, French was, of course, widely used early on in various parts of Europe. However, its use (for example by the Burgundian court) does not indicate that it was widely spoken in itsfrancien form: indeed, until schooling spread, Belgian languages were largely dialectal. The situation in the south was diglossic French [H(igh)]/Wallon or Picard [L(ow)], the latter being 'parlers romans du nord' ,4 while Flanders, having resisted an attempt by the Dutch King to make Dutch the official language in 1823, moved I shall use the terms 'Wallonie/Walloon' and 'Flanders/Flemish' in their modem meanings. referring to the two main halves of Belgium and their inhabitants. but excluding Brussels and the small German-speaking areas in the east. 'Wallonie' is a relatively recent coinage: historically both expressions had more restricted application within present-day Belgium (and 'Flanders' still includes an area of northern France). 2 See Sera De Vriendt and Pete Van de Craen, Bilingualism in Belgium: A History and an Appraisal. CLCS Occasional Paper 23 (Dublin: Trinity College, 1990); and Maurice Pi ron. 'Le fran~ais en Belgique'. in Gerald Antoine and Robert...

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