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French in and out of France

Language Policies, Intercultural Antagonisms and Dialogue

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Edited By Kamal Salhi

This book examines policy planning and implementation and language variation in the realm of intercultural communication in France, Europe, the Americas, Australia, North and Sub-Saharan Africa and the Middle East. The book aims to discern trends in the development of the capacity of Francophone speakers to engage in dialogue across linguistic boundaries. Each study in the volume seeks to evaluate and analyse the antagonistic situations that have resulted from colonial culture and the post-independence hegemonic cultures. These situations are investigated through their expression in the French language and the languages with which it coexists in the countries considered here. The expertise of linguists and language specialists in this volume provides formalist and structural insights and an innovative phenomenology of language and newly available quantitative and qualitative studies of synchronic language. These methodologies are applied to a wide range of subject areas: law, history, literature, politics and society. Taken as a whole the book offers a fresh perspective on the issues surrounding French within and beyond France in the post-colonial and Francophone contexts.

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Dawn Marley - Diversity and Uniformity: Linguistic Fact and Fiction in Morocco 335

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DAWN MARLEY Diversity and Uniformity: Linguistic Fact and Fiction in Morocco Morocco is a multilingual country, whose complex sociolinguistic land- scape is characterised by bilingualism and diglossia. Officially, however, it has one national and official language, 'Arabic'. Arabisation has con- sistently been the basis of Moroccan language policy since Independence in 1956, and yet the language of Arabisation has never been the mother tongue of any Moroccan. The vast majority of Moroccans actually speak a dialect of Moroccan Arabic or a variety of Berber, while French is widely used in education, business and commerce, the media and else- where. This chapter will briefly describe the sociolinguistic reality of the country and then examine the political and ideological motivation behind a language policy that ignores it. It will also consider the cultural tensions created by such a policy and in particular will look at the role of the two languages that represent major obstacles to Arabisation: French and Berber. These two languages are associated with cultures that are per- ceived as antagonistic towards 'national' culture, for very different rea- sons. French is an exogenous language, initially imposed on the country by a colonial power and now representing modem, Western culture, whereas Berber is the indigenous language, predating Arabic in Morocco and representing an arguably more 'authentic' traditional culture. In their different ways, both languages create problems, linguistic and cultural, for language policymakers in Morocco, as their continuing presence undermines the fiction of Arabic as the sole national language, uniting the country...

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