The United Kingdom and Germany
1 autonomy and the liberalisation or even wholesale abolition of professo- rial payment scales, the raising of restrictions on intake figures, and the legal right for all institutions to hold property and accumulate capital. Küpper (2009), who is head of the Bavarian State Institute for Higher Education Research and Planning, assesses the German HE ef ficiency reforms as positive on the whole. However, he rejects the Americanisation of German higher education and believes that the problem of the relation- ship between hierarchy and collegiality cannot be solved through entre- preneurial measures. The myth that all universities are equal is quite pervasive in Europe, and has been particularly prevalent in Germany, but in the long run it has been damaging to the highest institutional achievement. Cheng and Liu (2007: 360) point out that the Germans do not have any universi- ties in the world top-twenty of the Shanghai ranking, and speculate that: “[T]he idea of ‘equality’ among their universities could be the most important reason for this fact, as could the existence of strong independ- ent research institutes.” The negative myth of inter-institutional equality is also castigated by Müller-Böling and Federkeit (2007) and Altbach (2007). The German government has become very conscious that the rhetoric of equality was unreal, and militated against achieving the very highest standards. It has therefore introduced the “Excellence Initiative” which was passed by the German federal and state governments in 2005 and is an important reform leading to institutional dif ferentiation. For...
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