The United Kingdom and Germany
Chapter 8The Inf luence of Market Force Culture on British andGerman Academics 201
Chapter 8 The Inf luence of Market Force Culture on British and German Academics1 Market Forces and Globalisation The “traditional” ethos of modern-day universities both in the United Kingdom and in Germany was established in the nineteenth century and has been through many changes since then, usually rooted in social, politi- cal and economic imperatives. In Germany, the idea of the university was most resonantly articulated by Wilhelm von Humboldt and his colleagues during the foundation of the University of Berlin (Anrich, 1956). It was consciously intended to help restore Prussian self-confidence after that country’s defeat at the hands of Napoleon as a result of which Prussia lost all its territories west of the Elbe. It was founded on principles of ideal- ism, wholeness of view and neo-humanism. It espoused a philosophy of Bildung – self-improvement and inner cultivation through the cultural and educational environment – over and against the vocationalism of the French university ethos championed by Napoleon (Pritchard, 1990: 2–58). In the British Isles too, there was tension between dif ferent types of values. Some of Cardinal Newman’s Discourses (II–IV) derive from the Utilitarian proposal (1825) for the erection of a non-sectarian, non-residential uni- versity for the middle classes, the future London University, arguing that any university that failed to teach theology was not what it claimed to be: the home of all sciences (Svaglic, 1960/1966). Newman (1956 edn: 93) 1 First published in Comparative Education, 41 (4), 433–454, 2005. 202 Chapter 8 believed that liberal knowledge...
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