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‘To Be Truly British We Must Be Anti-German’

New Zealand, Enemy Aliens and the Great War Experience, 1914-1919


Andrew Francis

This book is a study of the treatment of New Zealand’s German-speaking settlers during the course of the Great War. As with Britain’s other dominions, New Zealand’s German and Austro-Hungarian residents were subject to a raft of legislation which placed restrictions on their employment and activities, while those considered a danger to domestic security found themselves interned for the duration of the conflict. This book examines public, press and political responses to their presence, and describes how patriotic associations, trade organizations, xenophobic politicians and journalists undertook a vigorous anti-alien campaign resulting, in a number of instances, in anti-German riots.
Central to this book is an examination of the extent to which proimperial sentiment, concepts of citizenship and national identity, increasing European settlement and a progressively volatile European scene set the tone for the manner with which the dominion’s British settlers treated its enemy alien counterparts. Themes discussed include the public’s reaction to war; the government’s internment policy; the establishment of anti-German trade organizations; and the challenges facing Prime Minister William Massey, whose wish to remain fair and just towards enemy aliens often brought him into direct conflict with the more hostile anti-German elements within New Zealand society.


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Bibliography 269


Bibliography Government Publications Appendix to the Journal of the House of Representatives ‘Jackson’s Bay Special Settlement Commission’, Appendix to the Journal of the House of Representatives, vol. II, H-9 and H9A, Wellington: Government Printer, 1879. ‘Men of War Visiting New Zealand since 1 January 1880’, Appendix to the Journal of the House of Representatives, vol. I, A-1, Wellington: Government Printer, 1885. ‘Report of Mr Justice Chapman Respecting the Treatment of Prisoners of War at Somes Island’, Appendix to the Journal of the House of Representatives, H-33, Wellington: Government Printer, 1919. ‘Report on Volunteer Force of New Zealand’, Appendix to the Journal of the House of Representatives, vol. III, H4-A, Wellington: Government Printer, 1885. New Zealand Gazette New Zealand Gazette, 164, 6 November 1917, Wellington: Government Printer, 1917. New Zealand Gazette, 81, 6 June 1918, Wellington: Government Printer, 1918. New Zealand Gazette, 5, 18 January 1923, Wellington: Government Printer, 1923. New Zealand Of ficial Year-Books New Zealand Of ficial Year-Books 1890–1929, Wellington: Government Printer. 270 Bibliography New Zealand Parliamentary Debates New Zealand Parliamentary Debates, volumes 104–83 (1898–1918), Wellington: Government Printer. New Zealand Statutes Alien Enemy Teachers’ Act, 67, 11 October 1915, New Zealand Statutes, Wellington: Government Printer, 1915, pp. 361–2. Enemy Contracts Act, 9, 28 July 1915, New Zealand Statutes, Wellington: Govern- ment Printer, 1915, pp. 15–16. Immigration and Public Works Act, 77, 12 September 1870, New Zealand Statutes, Wellington: Government Printer, 1870, pp. 313–36. Kauri Gum Industry Act, 23, 5 November 1898, New Zealand...

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