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Helen Waddell and Maude Clarke

Irishwomen, Friends and Scholars

Jennifer FitzGerald

As women’s university participation expanded rapidly in the first decade of the twentieth century, two close friends at Queen’s University Belfast nursed scholarly ambitions. Helen Waddell, budding feminist literary critic, and Maude Clarke, future Irish historian, were to become famous medievalists. Waddell’s progress was stymied by her stepmother’s insistence on family duty and by academic misogyny; Clarke’s father, in contrast, helped to clear her way. This joint biography intertwines the story of their friendship with their modern education, their shifting research interests and the obstacles and opportunities that faced them as women seeking academic careers. It traces Waddell’s evolution into an independent scholar, creative writer and translator of medieval Latin, and Clarke’s career as an influential Oxford don, training a generation of high-achieving women academics. The book also reproduces the surviving chapters of Helen Waddell’s Woman in the Drama before Shakespeare (1912-1919), an example of early feminist literary criticism, and Maude Clarke’s searching, self-reflective ‘Historiographical Notes’ (c.1930).

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Index 275

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Abbé Prévost: A Play in a Prologue in Three Acts (Waddell) 135–6 Abel, Elizabeth 102 Abelard, Peter 110–11, 115, 144–6, 146, 159, 179 Historia Calamitatum 144 n101 Letters 145, 159, 168 n66 Adams, Pauline 48 n55, 91 n2, 94 n14, 95 n17, 97 n29, n30 and n32, 111 n95, 148 n120, 169 n72 AE (George Russell) 53, 135, 146 Aislinge Meic Conglinne 117 Alexandra College and School 13, 14, 20, 129 Alighieri, Dante 200 Allan, Julian Phelps 134 Allen, P. S. 77 n38, 163, 165 Anglo-Irish Parliament 116, 138–9, 139–40, 172–3, 175 Anonimalle Chronicle, The 241 Anslay, Bryan 54 n78 Anson, Christine 99 n38 and n40 Aquinas, Thomas 34 Aristotle 149 Politics 44, 115 Arnim, Elizabeth von 65 Arnold, Matthew 79–80, 223 n153 Arthur 191, 199, 222–4, 226–30 Ascham, Roger 211, 214 Atkinson, Leonard 106 Aubrey, John 237 n17 Aucassin and Nicolette 192–3 Augustine, St 198 City of God, The 192 n24 Index Confessions 198 n47 Austen, Jane 65, 73, 214 Bagehot, Walter 237 Baird, Stanley 105–6 Baldwin, Stanley 135 Barber, Samuel 169 Barker, Ernest 44, 108 Barrie, Sir James M. 49 Bateson, Mary 60, 177 Beasts and Saints (Waddell) 158 Beaumont, Francis 208 n90 beauty 57, 74, 157, 197–8, 200, 201 Beckett, J. C. and Moody, T. W. 1 n2, 14 n25 and n26, 16 n33, 23 n65, 25 n76, 26 n81 and n84, 27 n89 Bedford College, London 106–7, 108–9, 118, 119, 123,...

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