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Subcultures and New Religious Movements in Russia and East-Central Europe


Edited By George McKay, Christopher Williams, Michael Goddard and Neil Foxlee

The collapse of communism has opened up Russia and East-Central Europe to outside influences and enabled new lifestyle choices and forms of religious expression. Based on extensive ethnographic research, this collection uses a variety of theoretical perspectives and methodologies to examine some of the many subcultures and new religious movements that have emerged as part of this process, from members of utopian eco-communities, native-language hip-hoppers and nationalistic skinheads to various forms of Indian-inspired spirituality, neo-paganism and theosophy. Whether they reflect a growing sense of national or ethnic identity, the influence of globalization or a combination of the two, such groups highlight the challenge of creating a free, open and tolerant society in both Russia and new or prospective EU member states. The book seeks to contribute to academic and policy debates in this area by increasing understanding of the groups in question.
The studies in this collection present selected findings from the three-year EU-funded project ‘Society and Lifestyles: Towards Enhancing Social Harmonization through Knowledge of Subcultural Communities’ (2006-2008), which included partners from a wide range of post-communist countries in Eastern Europe and from the UK.


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Index 427


Index 1997 Russian law on Freedom of Conscience, religion 247 7th Day Adventists, numbers in Russia 234 Academy of Parapsychology survey of society’s tolerance 350 Afro-American, Afro-Caribbean hip-hop as their protest culture 104 Agni Yoga (Living Ethics) 373 Agni Yoga Society 367, 369, 380 ahimsa (non-violence) 310 alternative school for community children Záježovŵá Community 202 alternative worldviews and lifestyles 215 analysis of empirical information 161 ancestor remembrance Cossack or Slav duty 288 Ancient Russian Ingliistic Church of Orthodox Old-Believers-Ingliists 264 Anglocentrism of subcultural studies 7 anthropology, recent developments 113 anti-censorship campaign, Romanian hip-hop 118, 120 anti-cult movements 310–11 anti-semitism of Cossack groups 257, 262–3 anti-Soviet environment impact of, on hippie lifestyle 151–2 ‘Arab’, Slovakian confusion with Muslims 395 Art of Living Foundation (AOLF) 343, 361 comparison, Lithuania and Denmark 339–62 Lithuania (AOLF-L) 349–53 meets criteria for NRM 344–9 non-governmental organization (NGO) 344 religion and spirituality 357–61 Aryan dominance theory 273 Asian culture not oppressed by communist state 308 Association of Friends of Islamic Literature 415 atheism among Cossacks 260, 261 indoctrination 242 reaction against 213 Augsburg Protestant in Slovakia 307 austerity, voluntary 203 authoritarianism Chinmoy group 324 Putin government 241 babe culture for women 102–3 Banner of Peace symbol of religion, art and science 367 Baptists encouraged by Bolsheviks to weaken ROC 229 numbers in Russia 234 bearskin 281 428 Index Caucasian people 36 prejudice against 23–4 celebrities’ contacts with Islam 409 celibacy compulsory, in Chinmoy group 324 censorship...

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