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Modality and Its Learner Variety in Japanese

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Razaul Faquire

In this book modality and its learner variety in Japanese are investigated from the perspective of grammaticalization in the functional framework. It describes the grammatical system of modality in Japanese in terms of the form-function relationship within the scope of a framework based on the European school of modality. Accordingly, it deals with the modal system and its constituents in Japanese, accommodating all the grammatical means of modariti (modality) in the Nihongo bunpou (Japanese grammar system). This study also casts light on the learner variety of modality, which is comprised of two core systems, epistemic and deontic, both of which are evident at the utterance level and the morphosyntactic level. The learner variety of modality elucidated here is presented as a proto-modality, which is viewed as a system in its own right rather than as an improvised or distorted version of the native modal system in Japanese.

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List of Tables xi

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List of Tables Table 1 Dif ferent Kinds of Hojo-Doushi in Japanese 17 Table 2 Modalities in Logic and their Operators 20 Table 3 Characteristic Features of the Pragmatic Mode of Utterance Structure in Comparison with the Syntactic Mode of Utterance Structure 60 Table 4 Levels of Development of the Learner Language in the Scale Suggested by Dif ferent Studies, and the Correspondence between the Levels of Learner’s Language in Dif ferent Studies 66 Table 5 Relationship between the Two Types of Modariti: Genpyou Jitai Meate no Modariti and Hatsuwa Dentatsu no Modariti 88 Table 6 Correspondence of Terminology from Matthews (1991), Nitta (2000) and Nihongo Kijutsu Bunpou Kenkyuukai (2003) 97 Table 7 Pattern of Cliticization of Final Particles to the Sentences Ending in Nominal (e.g. gakusei) and Verbal (e.g. asobu) Form 109 Table 8 Pattern of Verbal Form suru (to do) and desu (to be) in Futsuu-tai and Teinei-tai 111 Table 9 Relationship among Dif ferent Types of Modariti 112 Table 10 Derivational/Inf lectional Forms of Verb kaku [to write] 124 Table 11 Derivational Forms of Adjective/Verb to which the Modalizers of Ninshiki No Modariti Are Suf fixed 125 Table 12 Forms of Noun/na-Adjective+desu, to which Deontic Modalizers Are Suf fixed 126 Table 13 Derivational Forms of Verb to which Deontic Modalizers are Suf fixed in the Formation of Modal Constituents 127

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