Science Fiction and the Utopian Imagination
Notes to the First Edition
Chapter 1. Introduction: The Critical Utopia
1. This introductory essay is not intended to be a full history of utopian thought and writing but rather a lead-in to the critical utopias of the 1970s. For literary histories that are much more detailed than this schematic introduction, the reader is referred to Robert C. Elliott, The Shape of Utopia: Studies in a Literary Genre (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1970); Frank E. Manuel and Fritzie P. Manuel, Utopian Thought in the Western World (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 1979); and A. L. Morton, The English Utopia (London: Oxford University Press, 1952). Good bibliographies of utopian literature include Glenn Negley, Utopian Literature: A Bibliography (Lawrence: Regents Press of Kansas, 1977) and Lyman Tower Sargent, British and American Utopian Literature, 1516–1975, An Annotated Bibliography (New York: G. K. Hall, 1979).
2. Morton, The English Utopia, 49.
3. Leo Marx, The Machine in the Garden: Technology and the Pastoral Ideal in America (London: Oxford University Press, 1964). For other useful studies of the connection between utopia and the new world see R. W. B. Lewis, The American Adam: Innocence, Tragedy, and Tradition in the Nineteenth Century (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1952); and Henry Nash Smith, The Virgin Land: The American West as Symbol and Myth (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1950). See also the recent collection of essays: Kenneth Roemer, ed., America as Utopia (New York: Burt Franklin and Co., 1981).
4. Friedrich Engels, “Socialism: Utopian or Scientific,” in Lewis S....
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