This book maps recent developments in the landscape of education policy in higher and vocational education, the returns of education, curriculum design and education reforms, driven by social, economic, political and cultural factors. Contributed by over twenty authors from five continents, this collection provides diverse, innovative and useful perspectives on the ways education policy is researched, implemented and enacted. It helps researchers, policy makers, students and practitioners to better understand processes of policy making, its theory, practice and outcomes. Despite national differences, many shared features and challenges emerge from this book as education systems face the common need to reinvent their existing systems and processes.
Policy borrowing and policy learning in the initial VET reforms of Lithuania after 1990
This chapter describes patterns of application of policy borrowing and policy learning approaches in the design and implementation of the initial VET (further IVET) policy and instruments in Lithuania from 1990 to the date at the time of writing (October 2015). This aim is achieved by: (1) identifying the main factors that have defined the application of policy borrowing and policy learning approaches; (2) disclosing the balance between policy borrowing and policy learning in the different periods of IVET reform and VET policy design; (3) analyzing implications of policy borrowing and policy learning for the development of the VET system institutional model. The analysis demonstrates that the usage of policy borrowing and policy learning in the reforms of IVET and the development of the national qualification system of Lithuania was strongly influenced by the characteristics of institutional changes in the VET system. Radical post-soviet reforms of VET defined wider applications of policy borrowing, while the later adjustment of IVET and lifelong learning policies to the requirements of EU accession and integration, as well as the challenges of implementing new measures and instruments (Lithuanian Qualifications Framework, sectoral occupational standards), opened more possibilities for the application and development of policy learning.
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