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Manna – Bread from Heaven

Jn 6:22-59 in the Light of Ps 78:23-25 and Its Interpretation in Early Jewish Sources


Paweł Rytel-Andrianik

The author presents a new approach to the study of manna, which does not concentrate only on one particular representation of the bread from heaven (especially Ex 16). Additionally, he investigates the interconnections between Ps 78:23-25, Wis 16:20-13; 19:21 and Jn 6:22-59 and he explores the new ideas of each of these texts. He also strongly asserts that Hellenistic Judaism, represented by the Book of Wisdom, is not "a second-class Judaism". This fact is proved with the example of manna as the food of immortality, an idea not introduced by Christians in the Fourth Gospel, but already present in Wis 19:21.

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General Conclusions


1. Textual Findings

The phenomenon of the manna has been described in various places at different times, and a in number of biblical compositions, as is evidenced in this research regarding Ps 78:23–25; Wis 16:20–13; 19:21 and Jn 6:22–59. It seems, however, that the manna tradition as represented specifically in Ps 78:23–25 was much more influential in early Judaism and Christianity than is generally appreciated in current scholarship.

1.1 The Manna Texts Within Their Contexts

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