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About Russia, Its Revolutions, Its Development and Its Present

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Michal Reiman

The author analyzes modern Russian history from a new perspective. Due to the ideological heritage of the XIXth and XXth centuries, the social settings of the sociopolitical history of the USSR (1917–1945) have not been fully identified. Detailed examination of ideological and political concepts shows that the revolution of 1917 became not a middle class, proletarian movement, but rather a plebeian one. The misjudgment by the new power enabled growth but caused tremendous losses of human lives and material damages. Socialization of economy and strict centralization led to a new social structure and established terror as an instrument for social reorganization. WWII revealed the necessity of a correction of these developments, but the events of the Cold War circumvented any further considerations.

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Contents

Contents

Introduction

1. About the Russian Revolution of 1917

The Russia’s Maturity Level

The Russian Revolution of 1917 and Its Causes. Russian Marxism and the Bolshevics as a Political Party

The Russian Revolution as a Plebeian Revolution

2. The “Building Socialism” in the early 1920s

The War Communism and the NEP

The Events of 1923 in Germany and the Origin of the “Left Opposition” in the USSR

The Party and the Opposition after Lenin

The Opposition and the NEP

3. The NEP Crisis and Suppressing of the Left Opposition

The Year 1925 and Crush of Soviet Industrial Planing

Tautening International Relations and the NEP Crisis

The Party and Opposition in 1927. The “Platform” of Opposition

4. The Stalin’s “second” Revolution

The 1928 Crisis and Stalin’s Conflict with the Party “Rightists”

Stalin, his First Five-Year Plan and Related Issues

Collectivisation of Agriculture and Its Consequences

The 1932–1933 Famine and Changes in Stalin’s Politics

5. Stalin’s “Soft Course” and the Soviet 1930s Phenomenon

The Stalin’s new Soviet Society

Kirov’s Murder and the Turning Point in Stalin’s Domestic Policy

Changes in the International Situation and Soviet Politics

Stalin’s Constitution

6. Stalin’s “St. Bartholomew’s Day”

7. Consequences of Mass Massacre of the Soviet Elites

The Country after the Mass Massacre of Elites

USSR on the Brink of War

8. The USSR in the Second World War, 1941–1945

22 June 1941

Consolidation of the Soviet Leadership and Command

The 1943 – Turning Point of the War

Stalingrad and Kursk

9. The USSR and Western Allies

Connection and contradiction of the Allies

Tehran

10. The USSR and East-Central Europe

The USSR at the Countries of East Central Europe and Balkan on the End of War

Churchill, Stalin and the “Percentage Agreement”

Yalta and Potsdam

11. The USSR as the New World Superpower

A Few Words in Conclusion

Резюме

Bibliography

Index