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Research on Business

Edited By Hasan Arslan, Mehmet Ali Içbay, Rasim Yılmaz and Günther Löschnigg

This book presents a collection of papers written by researchers, teachers, administrators, analysts and graduate students working and doing research in the field of social sciences. The scientific studies include a wide range of topics from the analysis of social science textbooks to the teacher image in newspapers, the relationship between self-efficacy and cognitive level and the role of organizational silence on the loneliness of academics in work life.

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Enlightenment, Civil Society, and Political Economy



Eighteenth-century Enlightenment thinking is the key to understanding the development of the modern state and civil society, and it can be investigated with various perspectives. In this paper it will be evaluated through the birth of civil society and political economy in the Enlightenment age. I will focus on Anglo-American history. It is impossible to grasp every aspect and country experiences of the Enlightenment at the same time because it was a broad European-wide movement throughout the eighteenth-century. In the meantime to define civil society precisely is virtually impossible. Another obstacle is that the history of civil society is almost identified with modernity. By all means civil society had a modern pre-history that originated in Rome and Christian thought of Middle Ages. Moreover, there are different accounts to explain civil society in contemporary ideologies like liberalism and Marxism. In this paper, civil society is understood as an existence sphere distinct from state and private life.

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