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Controversy over the Existence of the World

Volume II


Roman Ingarden

Roman Ingarden (1893–1970), one of Husserl’s closest students and friends, ranks among the most eminent of the first generation of phenomenologists. His magisterial Controversy over the Existence of the World, written during the years of World War II in occupied Poland, consists of a fundamental defense of realism in phenomenology. Volume II, which follows the English translation of Volume I from 2013, provides fundamental analyses in the formal ontology of the world and consciousness as well as final arguments supporting the realist solution. Ingarden’s monumental work proves to be his greatest accomplishment, despite the fact that outside of Poland Ingarden is known rather as a theoretician of literature than an ontologist. The most important achievement of Ingarden’s ontology is an analysis of the modes of being of various types of objects – things, processes, events, purely intentional objects and ideas. The three-volume Controversy is perhaps the last great systematic work in the history of philosophy, and undoubtedly one of the most important works in 20th-century philosophical literature.

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Table of Contents

Table of Contents


Part II/1

VII.The Problem Pertaining to the Essence of Form and its Foundational Concepts

§ 34.Distinction of the Foundational Concepts of Form and Matter

§ 35.Relations among the Various Concepts of Form or Matter. Reduction to a Few Basic Concepts.

§ 36.The Problem of the Connection between Form and Matter

§ 37.Form I as Proper Object of Formal Ontology

VIII.The Form of the Existentially Autonomous Object

§ 38.Introductory Remarks

§ 39.The Basic Form of the Primally Individual, Existentially Autonomous Object

§ 40.The Constitutive Nature and the Properties of the Individual Object

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