Edited By Elżbieta Czarny, Andżelika Kuźnar and Jerzy Menkes
This book gathers Polish and foreign scholars to consider diverse aspects of Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP). It examines key general areas such as the improvement of the position of the negotiating parties in the world economy, in politics and in international organisations. The contributors analyze possible acceleration of non-discriminatory liberalisation negotiations, creation of new international standards or reducing regulatory differences, such as «Investor-state dispute settlement» (ISDS), public health, geographical indications. The contributions focus also on specific issues, such as the impact of TTIP on Polish and EU economy, on merchandise and services trade, energy supply, research and development, Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), or on the third parties.
Chapter 7. Trade Barriers in Services and Merchandise Trade in the Context of the TTIP: Poland, the EU and the United States
After remarkable reductions in tariffs resulting from the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and World Trade Organization (WTO) negotiating rounds, technical barriers to trade (TBTs) represent factors that hamper trade relations. Recent studies identify non-tariff measures (NTMs) or, alternatively, non-tariff barriers to trade (NTBs) as the major sources of import protection and, therefore, considerable distortions of trade. This issue is especially significant for the two main economic powers in the world, the EU and the US, since the proposal of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership, a free trade agreement between them. The Partnership implies alignment of NTMs and regulatory divergences by cutting non-tariff costs imposed by bureaucracy as well as from liberalising the trade in services and public procurement.
Already in 2003 Bradford estimated that US NTMs added twelve percent to the cost of trade with the United States, while European NTMs add between 48 and 55 percent to the cost of traded consumer goods. In the context of the European Single Market, a study by Copenhagen Economics (2005) underlines that removal of NTMs for the EU services directive might yield remarkably positive economic impacts. Likewise, according to the studies conducted by ECORYS (2009) and Francois, Manchin, Norberg, Pindyuk and Tomberger (2013) the removal of non-tariff barriers through the Transatlantic Partnership might bring remarkable trade expansion and considerable welfare gains.
Based on the theoretical framework of the gravity model, we extend the analyses of the topic from the Polish perspective. We...
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