Edited By Elżbieta Czarny, Andżelika Kuźnar and Jerzy Menkes
This book gathers Polish and foreign scholars to consider diverse aspects of Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP). It examines key general areas such as the improvement of the position of the negotiating parties in the world economy, in politics and in international organisations. The contributors analyze possible acceleration of non-discriminatory liberalisation negotiations, creation of new international standards or reducing regulatory differences, such as «Investor-state dispute settlement» (ISDS), public health, geographical indications. The contributions focus also on specific issues, such as the impact of TTIP on Polish and EU economy, on merchandise and services trade, energy supply, research and development, Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), or on the third parties.
Chapter 13. The European Union as the United States’ Partner in Research and Development Cooperation
International cooperation has already become a permanent element of the contemporary global economy, taking the form of various sorts of cooperation between companies, institutions, universities, private and public organisations or countries (UNCTAD 2002). Currently, fact that entities compete with one another on the international market and cooperate in certain areas of their activity, is no longer surprising. One such area is research and development, which is highly capital-intensive, time-consuming, and above all risky. For these reasons, R&D cooperation allows reducing costs, shortening research time and sharing risk with partners. At the same time cooperation (pooling the knowledge, competence and experience of the cooperating entities) enables transfer and diffusion of information, access to information (including complementary ideas), gaining tacit knowledge, and the emergence of technological synergy effects (Hagedoorn, Lundan 2001; Farell 2006; Contractor et al. 2011; Belderbos, Gilsing, Jacob 2011).
It is obvious that various US and EU entities, since they are traditional global R&D centres, cooperate with one another to a significant extent in the research and development arena. However, since the 1990s clear changes in the global R&D sphere, marked with internationalisation and decentralisation, may be observed. As a result of this, new countries from outside the Triad have emerged and aspire to play an increasingly important role in global R&D (UNCTAD 2005a; 2005b; 2011; Kehal, Singh 2006; Lu, Chen 2012). Consequently, the positions of the United States and the European Union have changed, and the question...
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