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Contemporary Approaches in Education and Communication

Edited By Hasan Arslan, Mehmet Ali Içbay, Alejandro J. Gallard and S. Lizette Ramos

This book presents a collection of papers written by researchers, teachers, administrators, analysts and graduate students working and doing research in the field of social sciences. The scientific studies include a wide range of topics from the analysis of social science textbooks to the teacher image in newspapers, the relationship between self-efficacy and cognitive level and the role of organizational silence on the loneliness of academics in work life.

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Secondary School Students’ Foreign Language Speaking Anxiety Levels and the Source of Foreign Language Speaking Anxiety (Elif Nur Bozer / Muhittin Çalişkan)

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Elif Nur Bozer and Muhittin Çalişkan

Secondary School Students’ Foreign Language Speaking Anxiety Levels and the Source of Foreign Language Speaking Anxiety

1. Introduction

Learning a language is perceived as a hard process by many people. The factors that make language learning process tough are cognitive factors, cultural factors, and affective factors (Baş, 2014). It is seen that many of the studies about language learning focus on affective factors (Baş, 2013; Gürsoy & Akın, 2013; MacIntyre & Clement, 1997; Öztürk & Gürbüz, 2014; Scovel, 1978; Tüm & Kunt, 2013). According to Scovel (1978) the affective factors are related to motivation and emotional reactions of learners. They prompt emotions and interfere with learning directly. In the hypothesis of Krashen (1982), three of the affective factors come to the fore: motivation, self-confidence, and anxiety. Scovel (1978) emphasises that in learning conditions anxiety is the most significant affective factor.

Spielberger states that anxiety is the feeling of worry, tension, irritation, and haste that are related prompting nervous system (Horwitz, Horwitz & Joann, 1986). Hilgard and his colleagues (1971) define the anxiety as “a state of fear that is identified with an object” (Scovel, 1978). In a broader meaning, anxiety is an emotional situation in which the feeling of weakness that is detected during the preparation of a predicted risk is experienced (Aydın & Zengin, 2008). Anxiety has been classified into different categories according to...

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