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Anfänge der Musiksoziologie

Russisch-sowjetische Quellen, 1900–1930

Natalia Nowack

Die Untersuchung zeigt am Beispiel Russlands, dass es zu Beginn des 20. Jahrhunderts deutlich mehr Aktivitäten mit musiksoziologischer Relevanz gab als bisher angenommen. Diese Aktivitäten stellen Verbindungen zwischen Taine, Guyau, Lalo, Simmel, Weber, Bekker und vielen anderen Ansätzen her. Analysiert werden russischsprachige Texte und Archivdokumente bis ca. 1930 und ihre Vorläufer, die in erster Linie aus Frankreich stammen. Die Studie leistet ebenfalls einen Beitrag zur Aufarbeitung einer nicht-demokratischen Zeit. «Utopisch», «vulgär» oder «nicht marxistisch» – all diese Bezeichnungen haben die frühen kunst- und musiksoziologischen Konzepte (er-)tragen müssen. Die Gesamtheit der Texte macht aus den vereinzelten Ansätzen des Faches Musiksoziologie eine komplette eigenständige Disziplin.

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There is a dilemma in every discipline: “What can already be seen” and “what still can’t be seen” as a characteristic of the discipline's independence. The beginnings of sociology of music have not completely been revealed and recorded yet. This study shows, with Russian culture as an example, that there were much more activities of musicsociological relevance than have been assumed. In international context these activities show connections between Taine, Guyau, Simmel, Weber, Lalo, Bekker and a lot of other early approaches.

Besides an early coinage of the cultural term in Russian musicology, concepts of reception theory (Yavorsky, Butskoĭ and Asaf’yev) and of economy of music (Gruber, Sabaneev) must be mentioned first. These were extended by empiric analyses (Gruber, Beljaeva-Ekzemplarskaja) and beginnings of systematization, e.g. drafting a history of music criticism. The sources used in this study, which nearly all have become bibliographical rarities, contain a definition of subject and task of the sociology of music in a smaller sense as well as examples of its methodical and didactical realization. There are no equivalent European sources that contain such definitions.

In connection with Stalin’s cultural policy, the reduction of general sociology deprived the sociology of art and the sociology of music of their working basis. During Soviet times early concepts of sociology of art and of music were called either “utopian”, “vulgar” or “non-Marxistic”. The latter unintentionally described the correct tenor of these concepts. They display the extraordinary potential of the cultural scenes of...

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