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Displaced Memories

Remembering and Forgetting in Post-War Poland and Ukraine

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Anna Wylegała

The book is a comparative case study of collective memory in two small communities situated on two Central-European borderlands. Despite different pre-war histories, Ukrainian Zhovkva (before 1939 Polish Żółkiew) and Polish Krzyż (before 1945 German Kreuz) were to share a common fate of many European localities, destroyed and rebuilt in a completely new shape. As a result of war, and post-war ethnic cleansing and displacement, they lost almost all of their pre-war inhabitants and were repopulated by new people. Based on more than 150 oral history interviews, the book describes the process of reconstruction of social microcosm, involving the reader in a journey through the lives of real people entangled in the dramatic historical events of the 20th century.

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Biographical Index of Respondents

Biographical Index of Respondents

Zhovkva

Nationality and religious affiliation are given in accordance with respondents’ own declarations. Unless stated otherwise, interviews were carried out in Ukrainian by the author.

Z1Af – born in 1930 in Rzeszów, Poland, to a wealthy Polish-Ukrainian household from Lwów (post-war Lviv). Greek Catholic. Before the war, she frequently visited Żółkiew on holiday. In summer 1939, her family was unsuccessful in an attempt to leave Żółkiew because of the outbreak of war, and she remained in the town. Her husband, a native of Żółkiew, was active in the UPA. Worked as a teacher.

Z1Bf – born in 1951 in Zhovkva. Ukrainian. Daughter of Z1Af. Higher education in a technical field. Retired at the time of the interview, though still working for a charity. During Soviet times, had several work contracts abroad, alongside her husband.

Z1Cf – born in 1973 in Zhovkva. Daughter of Z1Bf. Ukrainian. Higher education in humanities. Poet and translator (including from Polish). Living in Lviv.

Z2Am – born in 1922 in Żółkiew, to a peasant family. Ukrainian, Greek Catholic. Active in the UPA, was deported to Siberia in 1952. Returned to Zhovkva in 1957 after receiving an amnesty. Worked in a factory.

Z3Af – born in 1928 in a small town in Polish Subcarpathia. Ukrainian, Greek Catholic. Her parents died during the war. Her sister, who was active in the UPA, spent seven years in a Polish prison after 1945. In 1945, the respondent and her siblings were resettled to Zhovkva. Worked in a factory. Married a Ukrainian resettled from Poland, who had spent ten years in a Soviet labor camp in Siberia.

Z4Af – born in 1923 in a village in Polish Subcarpathia to a peasant family. Ukrainian, Greek Catholic. Was heavily injured in 1944 as a result of a German bombing. Was resettled to Zhovkva along with her family in 1945. Her father was murdered in Zhovkva by a Ukrainian nationalist militia, after he joined a Soviet collective farm. The respondent worked as a seamstress. Her husband was also resettled from Poland.

Z4Dm – born in 1978 in Zhovkva. Grandson of Z4Af. Ukrainian, Greek Catholic. Working as a teacher.

Z5Am – born in 1930 in a village in Polish Subcarpathia to a peasant family. Ukrainian, Greek Catholic. His family moved to Dnipropetrovsk (now Dnipro), eastern Ukraine, in 1944 as part of a resettlement operation. They attempted to ←337 | 338→return home in 1946, but settled in Zhovkva because the Polish border had been closed. Worked as a manual laborer.

Z5Cm – born in 1960 in Zhovkva. Ukrainian, Greek Catholic. Son of Z5Am. Secondary education, working in commerce.

Z6Am – born in 1929 in a village in Polish Subcarpathia. Ukrainian, Greek Catholic. His father’s brothers fought in the UPA. His family applied for resettlement to Ukraine at the beginning of 1945 because they were afraid of the Poles. Worked in a collective farm. Married to a Ukrainian who was also resettled from Poland.

Z6Cf – born in 1963 in Zhovkva. Daughter of Z6Am. Ukrainian, Greek Catholic. Self-employed.

Z6Df – born in 1989 in Zhovkva. Daughter of Z6Cf. Ukrainian, Greek Catholic. Student of medicine in Lviv.

Z7Af – born in 1928 in Żółkiew. Polish, Roman Catholic. Married a local Ukrainian man. Worked in the town administration. Interview conducted in Polish.

Z8Af – born in 1930 in Żółkiew, to Polish-Ukrainian family. Polish, Roman Catholic. Married a Ukrainian from the vicinity of Zhovkva. Worked in a factory. Interview conducted in Polish.

Z8Cf – born in 1962 in Zhovkva. Daughter of Z8Af. Ukrainian, Roman Catholic. Trained as an accountant, working on an irregular basis in Poland. Married to a Ukrainian from near Zhovkva.

Z8Dm – born in 1985 in Zhovkva. Son of Z8Cf. Ukrainian, Roman Catholic. Basic vocational education. Working on an irregular basis in Poland.

Z9Af – born in 1929 in Łódź, Poland, to a Polish-Ukrainian family. Polish, Roman Catholic. Her father (a Ukrainian) decided in 1945 to move the family to Ukraine. After the war, she worked in a photography workshop and a factory. Married a Ukrainian from near Zhovkva. Interview conducted in Polish.

Z9Bf – born in 1954 in a village near Zolochiv, Ukraine. Daughter-in-law of Z9Af. Ukrainian, Roman Catholic. Working in a factory.

Z10Af – born in 1933 in a small town in central Ukraine (the Ukrainian SSR) to a peasant family. Polish, Roman Catholic. Several members of her family were killed during the Stalinist Terror of the 1930s. Graduated from a technical college in Lviv, and arrived in 1954 in Zhovkva to work in education. Married a local Pole.

Z10Cf – born in 1959 in Zhovkva. Daughter of Z10Af. Polish, Roman Catholic. Married to a Ukrainian from the vicinity of Zhovkva. Higher education, working as a teacher. Active promoter of Polish diasporic culture. Interview conducted in Polish.

←338 | 339→

Z10Df – born in 1988 in Zhovkva. Daughter of Z10Cf. Ukrainian, Roman Catholic. Graduated from a teacher training college.

Z11Af – born in 1927 in a village in Poltava oblast, Ukrainian SSR, to a family of well-to-do peasants. Ukrainian, Orthodox. Her parents were killed during the Stalinist Terror (her mother during the dekulakization of her family, her father in the camps); the respondent was transferred to an orphanage along with her siblings. Graduated from a teacher training college, married a Russian engineer in 1948; the husband was assigned to work in Zhovkva. The respondent worked as a teacher.

Z11Dm – born in 1984 in Lviv. Grandson of Z11Af. Ukrainian, Orthodox. His father was Russian. Graduated from Lviv Polytechnic National University, working in Zhovkva as an engineer.

Z12Bf – born in 1944 in a village in Polish Subcarpathia to a peasant family. Ukrainian, Greek Catholic. Her family was deported to Ternopil region, western Ukraine, in 1946. After a few months, they came to Zhovkva and settled in a nearby village. The respondent moved to Zhovkva in 1961. Worked in a factory. Her husband was from the vicinity of Zhovkva, from a Polish-Ukrainian family.

Z12Cm – born in 1973 in Zhovkva. Son of Z12Bf. Ukrainian, Greek Catholic. Secondary education. Working in commerce.

Z13Am – born in 1926 in a village in Polish Subcarpathia to a peasant family. Ukrainian, Greek Catholic. His home was burned down in 1944 during wartime hostilities. His family was moved in December 1944 to Odessa region (Ukrainian SSR). After one year, the family tried to go back home, but the Polish border was closed and they settled in a village near Zhovkva. The respondent moved to Zhovkva itself in 1964. Worked in a collective farm.

Z14Af – born in 1926 in Żółkiew to a Polish-Ukrainian family. Roman Catholic. Her father (a Pole) passed away when she was a child. She married a Ukrainian from central Ukraine (the Ukrainian SSR), a police officer. Worked as a cook. Interview conducted in Polish.

Z15Am – born in 1934 in a village in Polish Subcarpathia to a peasant family. Ukrainian, Orthodox. His parents were resettled to Ukraine in 1946, initially to Ternopil Oblast, then to Zhovkva. Married to a Ukrainian from near Zhovkva. Worked in civil administration.

Z15Cf – born in 1960. Daughter of Z15Am. Ukrainian, Orthodox. Higher education, working as a teacher.

Z15Df – born in 1982. Daughter of Z15Cf. Ukrainian, Orthodox. Higher education in jurisprudence, working in a legal practice in Lviv.

Z16Af – born in 1928 in a village in Polish Subcarpathia to a peasant family. Ukrainian, Greek Catholic. Her family was resettled to Dnipropetrovsk Oblast ←339 | 340→(Ukrainian SSR) in 1944, and moved to Zhovkva a year later. Married to a Russian, a career soldier. Worked for a printing press.

Z16Bf – born in 1954. Daughter of Z16Af. Ukrainian, Orthodox. Higher education. Worked for the police. Married a Ukrainian from eastern Ukraine and lived there for 20 years.

Z16Dm – born in 1987. Son of Z16Bf. Ukrainian, Orthodox. Spent his childhood in eastern Ukraine. Studying medicine.

Z17Bm – born in 1942 in a village in Polish Subcarpathia to a peasant family. Ukrainian, Greek Catholic. His family was resettled to Dnipropetrovsk Oblast (Ukrainian SSR) in 1946, and moved to Zhovkva a year later. Worked as an electrician. Married to a Ukrainian from Zhovkva.

Z17Cf – born in 1971. Daughter of Z17Bm. Ukrainian, Greek Catholic. Secondary education. Working in commerce.

Z18Af – born in 1921 in a village in Polish Subcarpathia to a peasant family. Ukrainian, Greek Catholic. Was resettled to western Ukraine in 1944 along with her husband and daughter, initially to a village near Zhovkva, then to Zhovkva itself. Worked on a collective farm.

Z18Am – born in 1923 in a village in Polish Subcarpathia to a peasant family. Ukrainian, Greek Catholic. Was resettled to Ukraine in 1944. Worked on a state-owned forestry enterprise. Husband of Z18Af.

Z18Bf – born in 1944 in a village in Polish Subcarpathia to a peasant family. Daughter of Z18Af and Z18Am. Resettled to Ukraine with her parents in 1944. Secondary education, working in education.

Z19Af – born in 1927 in a village near Żółkiew to a well-to-do peasant family. Ukrainian, Greek Catholic. Active as local liaison in Zhovkva for the UPA from 1945. Exiled to Siberia with whole family in 1950. Married a Ukrainian (also a member of the UPA) whilst in exile. Returned to Zhovkva in 1962. Worked in a factory.

Z19Cf – born in 1963. Daughter of Z19Af. Ukrainian, Greek Catholic.

Z19Dm – born in 1991. Son of Z19Cf. Ukrainian, Greek Catholic. Studying in a technical college.

Z20Am – born in 1934 in a village near Złoczów (Lwów region, now Zolochiv), to an impoverished peasant family. Ukrainian, Orthodox. Graduated from police school, served in the police force from 1958 in a village near Zhovkva, and from 1961 in Zhovkva itself. Married to a Ukrainian from the east of the country.

Z20Af – born in 1931 in a village in Kyiv Oblast (Ukrainian SSR) to a peasant family. Ukrainian, Orthodox. Wife of Z20Am. Upon graduating from a teacher training college in Lviv, was assigned to work in western Ukraine. Worked in a school in Zhovkva from 1961.

←340 | 341→

Z20Cm – born in 1963. Son of Z20Am and Z20Af. Ukrainian, Orthodox. Working as a taxi driver.

Z21Bm – born in 1938 in a village near Żółkiew. Ukrainian, Greek Catholic. His parents were killed by the NKVD shortly after the end of the war. Arrived in Zhovkva in the 1950s to study at a vocational school connected to a factory. Worked in the town until retirement. Interview conducted by Tetiana Rodnienkova.

Z22Af – born in 1918 in a village in Kursk Oblast, Russia, to a family of collective farm employees. Russian. Graduated from a teacher training college and married an employee of the regional party committee. Her husband died at the front during the war; she was evacuated to Kyrgyzstan, where her daughter died. Marched with the Red Army to Berlin as a volunteer. After demobilization, was assigned to work in the regional party committee in western Ukraine; transferred to Zhovkva soon after. Interview conducted in Russian by Tetiana Rodnienkova.

Z23Af – born in 1929 in a village near Żółkiew. Ukrainian, Greek Catholic. Graduated from a teacher training college in Lviv. Arrived in Zhovkva in 1951 to work in a school. Married to a Ukrainian man from the east of the country. Interview conducted by Tetiana Rodnienkova.

Z24Af – born in 1923 in a village in Kyiv Oblast (Ukrainian SSR). Ukrainian, Orthodox. Was sent into forced labor in Germany during the war. Graduated from teacher training college and worked in Ternopil Oblast in 1946–1948. Married a Soviet officer, a Ukrainian, in 1950; he was assigned to work in Zhovkva. Initially worked in a school in a village near Zhovkva, later in Zhovkva itself. Interview conducted by Tetiana Rodnienkova.

Z25Af – born in 1920 in Odesa Oblast. Ukrainian. Her father was a blacksmith and a teacher. Her grandmother died in the Great Famine of 1932–1933. Graduated from the Pedagogical Institute and arrived in Zhovkva in 1951, where her husband found work. Worked in education. Interview conducted by Tetiana Rodnienkova.

Z26Af – born in 1923 in a village in Krasnodar Krai, Russia. Russian. Her parents and siblings died during the Great Famine of 1932–1933. After graduating from a nursing college after the war, was assigned to work in a field hospital near Zhovkva. Met her husband there, a war invalid from near Zhytomyr (Ukrainian SSR). Moved to Zhovkva in 1947, where her husband found work. Worked in a hospital. Interview conducted by Tetiana Rodnienkova.

Z27Bm – born in 1938 in a village near Żółkiew to a peasant family. Ukrainian, Greek Catholic. Living in Zhovkva since the late 1950s. Worked as a driver.

Z27Df – born in 1978. Daughter of Z27Bm. Ukrainian, Greek Catholic. Studied economics at a university in Lviv. Living in a village near Zhovkva.

←341 | 342→

Z28Bf – born in 1940 in a small town in Polish Subcarpathia to a Polish-Ukrainian family. Polish, Roman Catholic. Her parents – both teachers – arrived in Zhovkva voluntarily in 1944. Her father (a Ukrainian) spent several years in a labor camp in Kazakhstan. Higher education in a technical field. Married to a Ukrainian. Active member of Polish diaspora. Interview conducted in Polish.

Z28Dkf – born in 1993. Granddaughter of Z28Bf. Greek Catholic. Secondary school pupil. Interview conducted in Polish.

Z29Af – born in 1922 in Bydgoszcz, Poland. Ukrainian, Greek Catholic. Her father served in the Polish military. She spent the war in Rzeszów, Poland. Her parents left for Lviv in 1944. Graduated from teacher training college in Lviv, and was assigned to work in a village near Zhovkva in 1951. Later worked in a school in Zhovkva. Was an active participant of patriotic movements in the 1990s. Interview conducted by Myroslava Keryk.

Z30Af – born in 1928 in Żółkiew to a peasant family. Ukrainian, Greek Catholic. Graduated from a medical college, worked as a laboratory assistant. Interview conducted by Myroslava Keryk.

Z31Am – born in 1927 in Żółkiew. Ukrainian, Greek Catholic. His father worked on the railroads. During the war, was sent to Germany for forced labor. After the war, was sent first to the Donbas, then to the Ural Mountains. Returned to Zhovkva in 1947. Active in the patriotic movement, was an initiator of many public memorials, including to the victims of the NKVD. Interview conducted by Myroslava Keryk.

Z32Af – born in 1929 in Zaporizhia Oblast, Ukrainian SSR, to a Russian-Ukrainian family. Ukrainian, Orthodox. Graduated from a teacher training college and was assigned in 1951 to work in a library in Zhovkva. Her husband, a Ukrainian man from Poltava Oblast (Ukrainian SSR), was a functionary of the KGB. Interview conducted by Myroslava Keryk.

Z32Cf – born in 1960. Daughter-in-law of Z32Af. Ukrainian, Greek Catholic. Her parents came from Zhovkva. Secondary education.

Z33Am – born in 1917 in a village in Polish Subcarpathia to a peasant family. Ukrainian, Greek Catholic. Was sent for forced labor to Germany during the war. After returning, left for Ukraine and settled in Zhovkva. Worked as a carpenter. Married to a Ukrainian resettled from Poland. Interview conducted by Myroslava Keryk.

Z33Bm – born in 1949. Son of Z33Am. Ukrainian, Greek Catholic. Graduated from a university in Lviv with a degree in economics. Lives in Lviv.

Z34Af – born in 1932 in a village near Lwów. Ukrainian, Greek Catholic. Graduated from a medical vocational college, worked in a pre-school. Arrived ←342 | 343→in Zhovkva in 1952 to work. Married a local Ukrainian. Interview conducted by Myroslava Keryk.

Z35f – born in 1924 in Żółkiew. Ukrainian, Greek Catholic. Her brother joined the UPA after the war and was killed. In 1949 the whole family was deported to Siberia; she returned at the end of the 1950s. Worked as a cook. Interview conducted by Myroslava Keryk.

Z36Af – born in 1925 in Żółkiew. Ukrainian, Greek Catholic. Her mother died during the war. Her father worked for the town administration during the German occupation, and was deported to Siberia by the Soviets in 1945 together with her brother. The respondent joined them voluntarily. Returned to Zhovkva 35 years later. Interview conducted by Myroslava Keryk.

Z37Cf – born in 1972. Ukrainian. Her maternal grandparents came from Russia and her paternal grandparents from Zhovkva. A sociologist by training and an academic employee at a university in Lviv.

Z38Cm – born in 1956. Ukrainian. His parents were Russian; the father was assigned to work in western Ukraine after the war as a policeman, and the mother arrived from Krasnoyarsk Krai, fleeing from post-war famine. The respondent was working for the police and living in the so-called House of Clara, where Józef Beck hid 17 local Jews during the war.

Z39Cf – born in 1968 in a village in Lviv Oblast. Ukrainian, Greek Catholic. Her parents moved to Zhovkva when she was six years old. Married a local Ukrainian man whose parents had migrated from the vicinity of Zhovkva. Owner of an agritourism enterprise and working as a tour guide.

Z40Bm – born in 1952 in a village near Zhovkva. Graduate of Lviv Polytechnic National University, engineer. Arrived in Zhovkva in 1977 for work. Established the “Svitlo Kultury” (“Light of Culture”) foundation in 1990, a social organization that initiated the renovation of many historical sites and monuments in Zhovkva, including the synagogue and memorials to local Jews. At the time of interview, deputy director of the museum in Zhovkva castle.

Z41Bf – born in 1955 in Siberia. Ukrainian, Greek Catholic. Her parents were members of the Lviv intelligentsia and were deported during the war. They returned to Ukraine in the late 1950s and settled in Zhovkva. Working as a teacher.

Z41Df – born in 1981. Daughter of Z41Bf. Ukrainian, Greek Catholic. Graduated from a university in Lviv with a degree in cultural studies, also studied in Canada. Working in the tourism department of the Lviv City Council. Together with her husband, founded an organization that promotes the cultural and touristic development of Zhovkva.

←343 | 344→

Z41Dm – born in 1981 in Lviv. Husband of Z41Df. Ukrainian, Greek Catholic. Higher education, engaged in the development of cycling tourism.

Z42Cf – born in 1960 in Lviv. Ukrainian. Graduate of the Academy of Arts. Living in Zhovkva since 1992 (married a local Ukrainian). Director of the museum in Zhovkva castle since 2001.

Z43Dm – born in 1980 in Kamianske (then called Dniprodzerzhynsk) in eastern Ukraine. Ukrainian, Roman Catholic. Employee of the Tourist information center. Settled in Zhovkva because he had always wanted to live in western Ukraine.

Z44Cf – born in 1973. Ukrainian, Greek Catholic. One set of grandparents came from a village near Zhovkva, the others from Volhynia. Working in the museum, working on a doctoral dissertation on the Holocaust in Zhovkva.

Z45Dm – born in 1985. Ukrainian, Greek Catholic. Graduated with a history degree from Lviv University. One set of his grandparents came from Zhovkva, the other from villages in the vicinity. During the war, part of his family was deported to Siberia.

Krzyż

Unless stated otherwise, interviews were conducted in Polish by the author.

K1Af – born in 1914 in a village in Wielkopolska to a peasant family. The Germans depopulated the village in 1940. After a short stay in a transit camp in Łódź, the respondent left for Poznań to join her fiancé. Lived in Poznań with her husband until 1945, working as a cleaner in a German shop. Her husband left for Krzyż in February 1945 to work on the railways, and the respondent and their daughters joined in 1946. Did not work professionally thereafter; looked after the house and the children.

K1Bf – born in 1941 in Poznań. Daughter of K1Af. Arrived in Krzyż with her mother in 1946. Secondary education, worked on the railways. Married a Polish “repatriate” from Belarus.

K2Am – born in 1927 in a village in Wielkopolska. Moved to Poznań in 1936 with his parents. During the German occupation, worked in the city abattoir and on a German farm near Poznań. Moved to Krzyż in April 1945, where he started to work on the railways. Husband of K2Af.

K2Af – born in 1930 in a small town near Tarnopol (now Ternopil, western Ukraine). Her father owned a large carpentry firm and her mother hailed from an impoverished landed gentry family. Her family decided to move to Poland in April 1945, after a stay in Tarnów; they settled in Krzyż in August of the same year. The respondent worked in a shop; after marriage she looked after the home and children. Wife of K2Am.

←344 | 345→

K2Bm – born in 1954. Son of K2Af and K2Am. Secondary education, worked on the railways. Interview conducted by Teresa Wylegała.

K2Cf – born in 1959. Daughter of K2Af and K2Am. Higher vocational education, worked on the railways. Owner of a tailor shop.

K2Df – born in 1983. Daughter of K2Cf. Higher education with pedagogical specialization, working in a preschool.

K3Af – born in 1924 in a village in Wielkopolska. Her father was a railway worker and the family moved to a small town in 1926. In August 1939, the respondent, her mother and younger siblings were evacuated to the vicinity of Lwów. She returned home two months later. From 1940 she worked on a German estate in the vicinity. Started to work on the railways in Krzyż in 1945 and moved there permanently in 1948. Married to a “repatriate” from Ukraine.

K3Bf – born in 1951. Daughter of K3Af. Vocational education. Worked on the railways. Interview conducted by Teresa Wylegała.

K4Af – born in 1922 in a village in Wilno region (now Vilnius, Lithuania) to a peasant family. Began studies in a nursing college in 1944, then worked in a field hospital. Moved to Poland with her mother and siblings in 1946 and settled in a village near Krzyż. Worked as a dressmaker and cook, also ran a farmstead with her husband. Her husband was from Zamość region, Poland. Interview conducted by Jarosław Pałka.

K5Am – born in 1918 in a village in Lwów Voivodship (now Lviv, Ukraine) to a peasant family. Fought in the September 1939 defensive war. Was called up to the Red Army in 1944. Moved to Poland in 1945; settled in a village near Krzyż. Worked on a farm throughout his life. His wife was from the same village where he was born. Interview conducted by Dominik Czapigo.

K5Df – born in 1982. Granddaughter of K5Am and K16Am. Higher education in economics. Working in a commercial company.

K6Af – born in 1921 in a landowners’ estate in Wielkopolska, where her father worked as a coachman. The family moved to the vicinity of Poznań in 1929, where they spent the war period. During the German occupation the respondent worked on an estate run by Germans. Arrived in Krzyż in January 1946, where her husband, a railway worker, found employment. Looked after the house thereafter. Interview conducted by Dominik Czapigo.

K6Bm – born in 1946. Son of K6Af. Vocational education, worked on the railways. Interview conducted by Teresa Wylegała.

K7Am – born in 1931. Spent his childhood in a Polish village near Kreuz. His father was a railway worker. His family fled from the German occupation to Lwów region in August 1939, but returned after a month due to fear of the Soviets. Worked as a forced laborer on a German farm near Kreuz between 1941 ←345 | 346→and 1945. His family moved to Krzyż in 1948. Amongst other jobs, worked in a furniture factory and the state coach transport service.

K7Bm – born in 1954. Son of K7Am. Owner of a car repair workshop. Interview conducted by Teresa Wylegała.

K8Af – born in 1926 in a village in Nowogródek region (now Navahrudak, Belarus), to a peasant family. Emigrated to Poland in August 1945 together with her family, and settled in a village near Krzyż. Worked in agriculture throughout her life. Her husband was also a “repatriate.”

K8Bm – born in 1954. Son of K8Af. An electro-mechanic technician by training. Lived in Gorzów Wielkopolski, western Poland, for 35 years; returned to Krzyż after retirement. Interview conducted by Teresa Wylegała.

K9Af – born in 1921 in a village in Stanisławów Voivodship (now Ivano-Frankivsk region, Ukraine) to a peasant family. Her father was killed by Ukrainians in 1944. Her mother and siblings left for Poland in autumn 1944; the respondent and her husband made the journey in June 1945. Settled in a village near Krzyż, where her husband was a sołtys [head of the village] for many years.

K9Bm – born in 1950. Son of K9Af. Vocational education, held several jobs including working for the forestry commission.

K9Df – born in 1978. Daughter of K9Bm. Higher education, working in administration.

K10Af – born in 1925 in Poznań. Her mother worked in a factory, her father in military storage units. Her father was arrested by the Germans during the war for illegal trading and was sentenced to prison, where he remained until the end of the war. The respondent worked in a factory in Poznań during the occupation. In January 1945, during the battle for Poznań, the building in which the family lived was burned down. The respondent married in May 1945 and moved to a Polish village near Krzyż, her husband’s home. She moved to Krzyż in 1947 along with her family. Worked for the healthcare service. Interview conducted by Jarosław Pałka.

K10Bm – born in 1949. Son of K10Af. Vocational education, worked on the railways. Interview conducted by Teresa Wylegała.

K11Am – born in 1929 in a village in Wielkopolska. His father was a forester. The respondent was brought up in a Polish town on the then Polish-German border. During the war underwent forced labor in a German abattoir in Kreuz. Moved to Krzyż in 1948. Graduated from a vocational training college, worked, amongst other jobs, as a driver and storage manager.

K12Am – born in 1926 in Lwów. Worked on the railways during the German occupation. His family moved to Kraków in 1944, afraid of Soviet persecution. After the Red Army took Kraków, he worked on the railways, and left for the “Recovered Territories” in March 1945 on a special transport for railway workers ←346 | 347→from Lviv. In Krzyż, was assigned to work on the development of a hydroelectric power station in the vicinity. Worked on the railways from 1947.

K13Am – born in 1931 in a village in Lwów Voivodship (now Lviv, Ukraine) to a peasant family. His father was a local social activist. His family’s homestead was burned down by Ukrainians in June 1944 and the family moved to a nearby town; shortly afterwards, they were sent by the Germans to work in Hungary. The family emigrated to Poland in May 1945 and settled in a farmstead in a village near Krzyż. The respondent completed her secondary education on a part-time basis, then worked in agriculture.

K14Af – born in 1919 in a Polish village bordering on Kreuz. Worked in domestic service in Poznań in her youth. Married a communist activist in 1940. Worked in a German pharmacy during the occupation. Moved back to her native village in 1945 together with her husband, then left for Krzyż in search of a place to live. Worked as a cleaner.

K14Cf – born in 1974. Granddaughter of K14Af. Higher vocational education, working as a shop assistant.

K14Cm – born in 1972. Husband of K14Cf. Working on the railways.

K15Bf – born in 1936 in a Polish village bordering on Kreuz. Her parents owned a farm, and her father worked in a foundry during the German occupation. Due to the grandparents having a German-sounding surname, the family avoided persecution during the war. They moved to Krzyż in 1946, where the respondent’s father gained employment on the railways. Graduated from a tailoring school and worked as a dressmaker from the age of 17. Interview conducted by Jarosław Pałka.

K15Cf – born in 1958. Daughter of K15Bf. Secondary education. Worked on the railways.

K16Am – born in 1926 in a village in Lublin region, Poland. His father was a forester. Was imprisoned by the Polish secret police twice, in 1945 and 1946, for assisting Home Army units during the war. The entire family left for the “Recovered Territories” in April 1946 out of fear of persecution by the communist state. They settled in a village near Krzyż. The respondent served in the military in Subcarpathia in the years 1947–1949, taking part in Operation Vistula. After returning, he studied at a technical vocational college and worked for a land amelioration company until 1989.

K16Cf – bon in 1957. Daughter of K16Am. Mother of K5Df. Secondary education with economic profile. Running a private farm together with her husband.

K16Dm – born in 1989. Granddaughter of K16Am and K5Am. Secondary education with technical profile, living in a village, proprietor of a construction company.

←347 | 348→

K17Am – born in 1929 in Lwów (now Lviv, Ukraine). In 1933, after the death of the father, his family moved to a smaller town in Galicia, where his mother worked as a steward in a dormitory. Arrived in Krzyż in 1945 as part of the “repatriation” operation. Higher education, worked as a teacher, was a founder and active member of the scouting association in Krzyż and a regular representative of local self-government after 1989.

K18Af – born in 1915 in a village in Nowogródek region (now Navahrudak, Belarus) to a peasant family. Graduated from a teacher training college and was admitted to the Pedagogical Faculty of Lwów University in 1939, but did not begin her studies due to the outbreak of war. Married a teacher. Worked in a Belarusian school during the war. Migrated to Poland in 1945 with her husband and daughter. Ran a farmstead near Krzyż together with her husband until 1949; thereafter, worked for 30 years in a school. After the death of her son, a poet, looked after his literary estate.

K19Af – born in 1934 in a village in Lublin region, Poland. Sister of K16Am. Her father was a forester. Her family left for the “Recovered Territories” in 1946 out of fear of Ukrainian nationalist militias and persecution by the Polish communist secret police; they settled in a village near Krzyż. Worked in administration.

K20Af – born in 1925 in a village in Lwów Voivodship (now Lviv, Ukraine) to a peasant family. Left for Poland in May 1945 with her maternal aunt and her aunt’s husband; her parents and siblings remained in the USSR and arrived in Krzyż in 1956. Lived in a village in the vicinity of Krzyż until 1948, then moved to a village near the Polish-German border with her husband. Returned to the Krzyż area after a decade, where she ran a farm enterprise with her husband. Her husband was also a “repatriate.”

K20Cf – born in 1959. Daughter of K20Af. Secondary education. Owner of a private farm together with her husband.

K20Df1 – born in 1982. Daughter of K20Cf. Higher vocational education. Looking after house and children.

K20Df2 – born in 1984. Daughter of K20Cf. Secondary vocational education. Looking after house and children.

K21Af – born in 1929 in a village in Volhynia, now Ukraine. Her father was a military settler and worked as a locksmith. Her mother worked as a dressmaker. After the Soviets invaded in 1939, her maternal aunt was deported to Siberia. The respondent’s older sister and brother-in-law were murdered by a Ukrainian militia. The family fled to a nearby town in 1942, and were then sent into forced labor in Germany. The respondent and her family arrived in Poland’s new western provinces in May 1945, settling in a rural homestead near Krzyż, ←348 | 349→then moved to the town itself in 1951. Worked in a canteen. Her husband was from Polish Subcarpathia.

K21Cm – born in 1958. Son of K21Af. Secondary education, worked on the railways; at the time of the interview, working as a security guard.

K22Af – born in 1928 in Poznań. Spent her childhood in a Polish village bordering on Kreuz. Her father was a tailor. Deported to Germany for forced labor in 1943. Returned home in 1944 and worked for the remainder of the occupation as a carer for children in a German family. Her family moved to Krzyż in October 1945. Worked in a variety of industrial companies.

K22Bm – born in 1950. Son of K22Af. Higher vocational technical education, worked in a number of jobs including in a foundry and the waterworks. One of his daughters married a German man and moved to Germany. Interview conducted by Teresa Wylegała.

K23Af – born in 1918 in a village in Wielkopolska. Her father was an administrator on a landowners’ estate. After finishing school, the respondent lived and worked in Poznań. Worked in a German tailor shop during the war. Moved to Krzyż in May 1945, after her husband gained employment on the railways. Worked as a dressmaker.

K23Bf – born in 1938. Daughter of K23Af. Secondary education. Worked as a school secretary and in construction, among other jobs. Interview conducted by Piotr Filipkowski.

K23Cm – born in 1972. Grandson of K23Af, nephew of K23Bf. Secondary education, working on the railways in Poznań.

K24Am – born in 1930 in a village in Volhynia, now Ukraine, to a peasant family. His father was a Pole and his mother was Czech. During the German occupation his family concealed a group of Jews, who were later discovered and murdered by a Ukrainian man from the same village. In 1943 the respondent and his family were deported to Austria for forced labor, where one of his brothers died. After the end of the war the family was deported to Soviet Ukraine. Upon returning to Volhynia they lived on a collective farm for three months. They left for Poland in December 1945. The respondent graduated from a technical vocational college and worked in land amelioration. Married to another Pole from Volhynia (K24Af).

K24Af – born in 1935 in a village in Volhynia. Her father worked as a carriage driver on the estate of the Radziwiłł magnate family. The family hid from Ukrainian nationalists during the war. They were sent to Austria for forced labor in 1943. They left for Poland in May 1945 and settled in a village near Krzyż. The respondent moved to Krzyż in 1951. Worked in a canteen.

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K25Bm – born in 1938 in Germany. His parents, who were from central Poland, had migrated to Germany to work before 1918 and remained there. During the war they worked as agricultural workers on a German landowners’ estate. The family left for Poland in April 1945 and settled in Krzyż. The respondent graduated from a polytechnic college and worked as an engineer. Was a town councilor after 1989. Writing a memoir and a history of his family.

K25Bf – born in 1944 in Kraków. Her parents and grandparents came to Krzyż in 1945, where her grandfather opened a restaurant in the railway station (it was confiscated after a few years during the state’s fight against private business). Secondary education, worked in a bank. Wife of K25Bm.

K25Cm – born in 1965. Son of K25Bf and K25Bm. Secondary education, working on the railways.

K25Df – born in 1991. Daughter of K25Cm. Student of nutrition science.

K26Bk – born in 1942 in a village in Nowogródek region (now Navahrudak, Belarus) to a peasant family. Arrived in Krzyż in 1945 with her parents. Secondary education, worked as a drafting technician. Married a man from Gdańsk.

K26Cf – born in 1970. Daughter of K26Bf. Higher education, working in a care organization.

K27Af – born in 1919 in a village near Warsaw. Because the village became overpopulated after the fall of the Warsaw Uprising in 1944, moved to the “Recovered Territories” together with her husband. Settled in a village near Krzyż in 1945, where they ran a mill and farmstead. Interview conducted by Piotr Filipkowski.

K27Bm – born in 1940. Son of K27Af. His parents moved to a village near Krzyż in 1945. Higher education, worked as a teacher. Interview conducted by Teresa Wylegała.

K28Am – born in 1917 in Germany, where his parents worked as seasonal laborers. Spent his childhood in a village in Wielkopolska. His parents and siblings were deported to Germany for forced labor during the war, whilst he was employed in a factory in Poznań. Arrived in Krzyż in 1945, looking for work. Worked on the railways, was an active supporter of the communist party. Interview conducted by Piotr Filipkowski.

K29Bf – born in 1942 in a village in Polish Subcarpathia to a Lemko family of Greek Catholic faith. Her father was a postman. The family was resettled in 1947 as part of Operation Vistula. After a short stay in a formerly German estate near Piła, they settled in a village in Krzyż, where the respondent continues to live. Her husband comes from Wielkopolska.

K29Cf – born in 1969. Daughter of K29Bf. Higher vocational education, self-employed.

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K29Df – born in 1992. Daughter of K29Cf. Student of geography.

K30Af – born in 1926 in a village in Wielkopolska. Sister of K3Af. Her father was a railway worker. The respondent and her mother and siblings were evacuated to the vicinity of Lwów in 1939. Upon returning home, worked in a German dairy. Was sent to eastern Germany (part of the post-war “Recovered Territories”) for forced labor in 1941. Was evacuated westwards in January 1945 together with the family to which she was assigned; she worked on their estate until April of that year. Began working on the railways in Krzyż in 1946. Her husband was from Wielkopolska. Interview conducted by Teresa Wylegała.

K30Cf – born in 1963. Daughter of K30Af. Higher education, working on the railways. Interview conducted by Teresa Wylegała.

K31Af – born in 1929 in a small town in Stanisławów Voivodship (now Ivano-Frankivsk region, Ukraine). Her father was a miner in a salt mine; he was arrested by the Germans during the occupation for illegal slaughter of animals and died in prison. Her brother died in a concentration camp in Germany. The family moved to Poland in July 1945. The respondent worked at the post office. Her husband was also from the pre-war East. Interview conducted by Teresa Wylegała.

K31Bm – born in 1951. Son of K31Af. Vocational education. Worked on the railways in Lublin region for two decades and returned to Krzyż after retirement. Interview conducted by Teresa Wylegała.

K32Bf – born in 1940 in a village near Lwów. Her family fled to Lwów in 1944 out of fear of Ukrainian nationalists, and were subsequently deported to Austria for forced labor. They returned to Lviv in 1945, and then left for Poland. After trying to settle in a larger town, they found a home in Krzyż. The respondent graduated from a vocational school and worked in a shop and as a waitress. After becoming a mother, she looked after the household. Interview conducted by Teresa Wylegała.

K32Cf – born in 1962. Daughter of K32Bf. Higher education, worked as a teacher, retired at the time of the interview. Interview conducted by Teresa Wylegała.

K33Af – born in 1930 in a village now in Belarus to a peasant family. Her father was wounded in the 1939 defensive war and died. The family left for Poland in 1945 out of fear of Soviet collectivization. They settled in a village near Krzyż, where the respondent worked in a rettery. Moved to Krzyż after marriage, worked in a concrete plant. Interview conducted by Teresa Wylegała.

K33Df – born in 1986. Granddaughter of K33Af. Secondary education.

K34Bf – born in 1935 in Poznań. Her father worked on the railways. The family fled from Poznań in 1939 to escape from the Germans, and upon returning they ←351 | 352→were evicted from their home. Her father gained work on the railways in Krzyż in 1945 and moved the whole family there. The respondent worked as a teacher. Her husband was a “repatriate” from today’s Belarus. Interview conducted by Teresa Wylegała.

K35Af – born in 1930 in a town in Stanisławów Voivodship (now Ivano-Frankivsk region, Ukraine) to a military family. Her father was in hiding during the Soviet occupation. Her maternal cousins were murdered by Ukrainian nationalists. The family left for Poland in 1945 and settled in Krzyż. Her husband came from Poznań. Interview conducted by Teresa Wylegała.

K36Af – born in 1926 in a village in central Poland to a peasant family. Her mother had German roots. After the family refused to be included in the Volksliste after the outbreak of war, they were evicted from their homestead. The respondent came to Krzyż in November 1945, after her husband received work on the railways. Worked as a dressmaker and on the railways. Interview conducted by Teresa Wylegała.

K37Bm – born in 1946. Her parents were from a Polish village near the border with Kreuz; the family arrived in Krzyż in 1945. Working in administration, living in a village near Krzyż.

K38Bf – born in 1953. Mayor of Krzyż Wielkopolski. Higher education, previously worked as a teacher.

K39Bf – born in 1953. Her mother was a German who married a forced laborer from Poland, who was working on her parents’ mill; after the war, the parents remained in Krzyż. Together with her husband, owns a farm enterprise in the vicinity of Krzyż.

K40Cm – born in 1955. His father was born in the USA to a family of emigrants from Polish Subcarpathia; the family moved back to Poland before the war. The respondent’s father came to Krzyż in 1948 to work on the railways. The respondent himself worked in education.

K41Cf – born in 1959. A history teacher and head of an elementary school. Living in Krzyż since the 1970s.

K42Dm – born in 1978. His grandfather was from near Mława, central Poland, and was granted a farmstead near Krzyż for his service in the Polish military. His maternal grandparents were “repatriates” from today’s Ukraine (his grandmother was Slovenian). Secondary education. A collector of German postcards.

K43Cm – born in 1971. His mother came from today’s Belarus and his father from Kuyavia, north-central Poland. Completed a higher education degree in forestry, working as a forester. Interview conducted by Teresa Wylegała.

K44Dm – born in 1982. His grandparents came from today’s Lithuania. A history teacher in an elementary school, he wrote his Masters thesis on the post-war deportations in Krzyż.

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