Edited By Rasim Yilmaz and Günther Löschnigg
This volume is a collection of empirical and theoretical research papers in the social sciences regarding the Balkans and the Near East written by researchers from several different universities and institutions. The studies include a wide range of topics from economic, financial, political, agricultural, sociological, international relations to historical, cultural, and feminist issues in the region of the Balkan and Near East. The book is aimed at educators, researchers, and students interested in the Balkan and Near Eastern countries.
Analyzing of Hazelnut Foreign Trade in Turkey with Competitiveness Indices (Derya İlkay Abdikoğlu / Gökhan Unakitan)
Derya İlkay Abdikoğlu1 and Gökhan Unakitan2 Analyzing of Hazelnut Foreign Trade in Turkey with Competitiveness Indices Introduction Economic changes in the world especially after the 1970s and also rapidly chang- ing production systems affected the competition conditions in international mar- kets. The existence of a competitive environment is increasing companies’ and countries’ efforts to obtain extra added value from international competition. International competitiveness, originally based on the comparative advantage theory, is selling power for goods produced by a country on the world market at world prices, to have an effective export share in the international market, and to be able to maintain this position (Saraçoğlu and Köse, 2000). International competitiveness of the countries is affected by their level of ex- perience about international trade and foreign trade indicators. The comparative advantage is the most important concept in the theory of international trade. Spe- cialization is located on the basis of the comparative advantage. In order to ensure continuity of exports and to obtain competitiveness, it is necessary to decrease costs per unit. Therefore, quality, technical performance and production should be improved. To compete in foreign markets is required to ensure a high and sustainable growth rate of exports. There are three approaches used to measure the competitiveness in the litera- ture. These are macroeconomic, microeconomic, and trade approaches (Wziatek- Kubiak, 2003: 2–4). In the macroeconomic approach, country economies are taken as a whole and rated according to specific criteria. In the microeconomic approach, the...
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