Show Less
Open access

HR Policies and Maternal Labor Supply

The Example of Employer-Supported Childcare


Susanne Schneider

The author asks how far the extension of employer-supported childcare serves as a driver for higher maternal labor supply. She addresses this question by categorizing employer-supported childcare as an efficiency wage introduced by the employer to increase the working volume of mothers. Applying various impact evaluation techniques in an econometric analysis, the author concludes that the availability of employer-supported childcare has a positive impact on the length and working volume of mothers who return back to work after giving birth. Furthermore, the usage of employer-supported childcare by mothers with pre-school age children influences the amount of agreed and actual working hours positively.


Show Summary Details

← 180 | 181 →


Aassve, A., Arpino, B., & Goisis, A. (2012). Grandparenting and mothers’ labour force participation: A comparative analysis using the generations and gender survey. Demographic Research, 27(3), 53–84.

Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational behavior and human decision processes, 50(2), 179–211.

Akerlof, G. A. (1970). The Market for “Lemons”: Quality Uncertainty and the Market Mechanism. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 84(3), 488–500.

Akerlof, G. A. (1982). Labor contracts as partial gift exchange. The Quarterly Journal of Economics. (97), 543–569.

Akerlof, G. A. (1984). Gift exchange and efficiency-wage theory: Four views. The American Economic Review, 74(2), 79–83.

Akerlof, G. A., & Kranton, R. E. (2010). Identity economics: How our identities shape our work, wages, and well-being. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Akerlof, G. A., & Yellen, J. L. (1990). The fair wage-effort hypothesis and unemployment. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 255–283.

Alan, K. M. A., Yochanan, A., & Josse, R. (2008). Employee training needs and perceived value of training in the Pearl River Delta of China. Journal of European Industrial Training, 32(1), 19–31.

Alchian, A., & William, A. (1964). Exchange and Production: Theory in Use. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth publishing company.

Allison, P. D. (1984). Event History Analysis: regression for longitudinal event data: Quantitative applications in the social sciences. Beverly Hills: Sage.

Allmendinger, J. (2010). Verschenkte Potenziale?: Lebensverläufe nicht erwerbstätiger Frauen. Frankfurt am Main: Campus Verlag.

Anderson, B., & Geldenhuys, D. J. (2011). The relationship between absenteeism and employer-sponsored child care. Southern African Business Review, 15(3), 21–45.

Anderson, D. M., Birkeland, K., & Giddings, L. (2009). Employee Opinion on Work-Family Benefits: Evidence from the US. New Zealand Journal of Employment Relations, 34(3).

Andreoni, J., & Miller, J. (2002). Giving according to GARP: An experimental test of the consistency of preferences for altruism. Econometrica, 70(2), 737–753.

Ariely, D., Bracha, A., & Meier, S. (2009). Doing good or doing well? Image motivation and monetary incentives in behaving prosocially. The American Economic Review, 99(1), 544–555. ← 181 | 182 →

Arntz, M., Dlugosz, S., & Wilke, R. A. (2014). The sorting of female careers after first birth: A competing risks analysis of maternity leave duration (ZEW – Centre for European Economic Research Discussion Paper No. 14–125).

Ashenfelter, O., & Card, D. E. (2011). Handbook of labor economics. Handbooks in economics: 5,4,2. Amsterdam [u.a.]: Elsevier.

Auth, D., Leiber, S., & Leitner, S. (2011). Sozialpolitik als Instrument der Geschlechtergerechtigkeit. Gruppendynamik und Organisationsberatung, 42(2), 151–162.

Babbie, E. (2015). The practice of social research (Twelfth Edition). Belmont, CA: Nelson Education.

Balkin, D. B., & Richebé, N. (2007). A gift exchange perspective on organizational training. Human Resource Management Review, 17(1), 52–62.

Barel, Y., Fremeaux, S., & Michelson, G. (2010). Employee attitudes towards employer-sponsored child care: Evidence from France. Indian Journal of Industrial Relations, 46(2), 229–247.

Baron, J. N. (2013). Empathy wages?: Gratitude and gift exchange in employment relationships. Research in Organizational Behavior, 33, 113–134.

Bassett-Jones, N., & Lloyd, G. C. (2005). Does Herzberg's motivation theory have staying power? Journal of management development, 24(10), 929–943.

Becker, G. S. (1964). Human Capital: A theoretical and empirical analysis, with special reference to education (1st ed.). New York: National Bureau of Economic Research.

Becker, G. S. (1993). A treatise on the family (Enlarged Edition). Cambridge, MA: Havard University Press.

Becker, G. S. (2009). Human capital: A theoretical and empirical analysis, with special reference to education (3rd ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Becker, S. O., & Ichino, A. (2002). Estimation of average treatment effects based on propensity scores. The stata journal, 2(4), 358–377.

Becker, S. O., Messer, D., & Wolter, S. C. (2013). A Gift is Not Always a Gift: Heterogeneity and Long-term Effects in a Gift Exchange Experiment. Economica, 80(318), 345–371.

Beckmann, M., Cornelissen, T., & Kräkel, M. (2015). Self-managed working time and employee effort: Theory and evidence (SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research No. 768–2015).

Benabou, R., & Tirole, J. (2003). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. The Review of Economic Studies, 70(3), 489–520.

Benz, M., & Frey, B. S. (2002). Ökonomie und Psychologie: eine Übersicht. In D. Frey & L. von Rosenstiel (Eds.), Enzyklopädie der Witschaftspsychologie. Göttingen: Hogrefe, Verlag für Psychologie.

Berger, E. M. (2013). Happy Working Mothers? Investigating the Effect of Maternal Employment on Life Satisfaction. Economica, 80(317), 23–43. ← 182 | 183 →

Bergstrom, T., & Blomquist, S. (1996). The political economy of subsidized day care. European Journal of Political Economy, 12(3), 443–457.

Bertram, H., Rösler, W., & Deuflhard, C. (2015). Die überforderte Generation: Arbeit und Familie in der Wissensgesellschaft. Leverkusen: Verlag Barbara Budrich.

berufundfamilie Service GmbH. (2016). Strategisches Managementinstrument für Unternehmen und Institutionen. Retrieved June 26, 2016, from

Blau, D. M. (1997). The production of quality in child care centers. Journal of Human Resources, 32(2), 354–387.

Blau, D. M., & Mocan, H. N. (2002). The supply of quality in child care centers. Review of Economics and Statistics, 84(3), 483–496.

Blau, F. D., Ferber, M. A., & Winkler, A. E. (2006). The economics of women, men, and work (Seventh edition). Pearson series in economics. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.

Blau, P. M. (1964). Exchange and power in social life. New York: Wiley.

Blien, U. (1986). Unternehmensverhalten und Arbeitsmarktstruktur: Eine Systematik und Kritik wichtiger Beiträge zur Arbeitsmarkttheorie (Beiträge zur Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung No. 103). Nürnberg.

Bloom, N., Kretschmer, T., & van Reenen, J. (2011). Are family-friendly workplace practices a valuable firm resource? Strategic Management Journal, 32(4), 343–367.

BMFSFJ. (2003). Betriebswirtschaftliche Effekte familienfreundlicher Maßnahmen. Kosten- Nutzen-Analyse. Berlin, Germany.

BMFSFJ. (2006). Kosten betrieblicher und betrieblich unterstützter Kinderbetreuung: Leitfaden für die Unternehmenspraxis. Berlin, Germany.

BMFSFJ. (2008). Beruflicher Wiedereinstieg nach der Familiengründung: Bedürfnisse, Erfahrungen, Barrieren. Berlin, Germany.

BMFSFJ. (2009). Vereinbarkeit von Familie und Beruf für Alleinerziehende. Berlin, Germany.

BMFSFJ. (2012a). Alleinerziehende in Deutschland – Lebenssituationen und Lebenswirklichkeiten von Müttern und Kindern.: Monitor für Familienforschung. Beiträge aus Forschung, Statistik und Familienpolitik. Berlin, Germany.

BMFSFJ. (2012b). Ausgeübte Erwerbstätigkeit von Müttern: Erwerbstätigkeit, Erwerbsumfang, und Erwerbsvolumen (2010). Dossier. Berlin, Germany.

BMFSFJ. (2013a). Unternehmen Kinderbetreuung: Praxisleitfaden für betriebliche Kinderbetreuung. Berlin, Germany.

BMFSFJ. (2013b). Unternehmensmonitor Familienfreundlichkeit 2013. Berlin, Germany. ← 183 | 184 →

BMFSFJ. (2014). Gesamtevaluation der ehe- und familienbezogenen Maßnahmen und Leistungen in Deutschland. Endbericht. Berlin, Germany.

BMFSFJ. (2015). The ElterngeldPlus with partnership bonus and more flexible parental leave. Berlin, Germany.

BMFSFJ. (2016a). Gesetz für die gleichberechtigte Teilhabe von Frauen und Männern an Führungspositionen. Berlin, Germany.

BMFSFJ. (2016b). Kindertagesbetreuung kompakt: Ausbaustand und Bedarf 2015. Berlin, Germany.

Boll, C. (2009). Einkommenseffekte von Erwerbsunterbrechungen: Mit besonderer Berücksichtigung möglicher Elterngeldeinflüsse auf das Unterbrechungsmuster (HWWI Policy Paper No. 1–21).

Boll, C. (2015). Kurz kommentiert: Betreuungsgeld – mehr Integration. Wirtschaftsdienst, 95(8), 512–514.

Bolle, F., & Otto, P. E. (2010). A price is a signal: On intrinsic motivation, crowding-out, and crowding-in. Kyklos, 63(1), 9–22.

Borck, R., & Wrohlich, K. (2011). Preferences for childcare policies: Theory and evidence. European Journal of Political Economy, 27(3), 436–454.

Boxall, P. F., Purcell, J., & Wright, P. M. (Eds.). (2007). Oxford handbooks. The Oxford handbook of human resource management. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press.

Brandes, P., Dharwadkar, R., & Wheatley, K. (2004). Social exchanges within organizations and work outcomes the importance of local and global relationships. Group & Organization Management, 29(3), 276–301.

Brass, D. J., Butterfield, K. D., & Skaggs, B. C. (1998). Relationships and unethical behavior: A social network perspective. Academy of management review, 23(1), 14–31.

Brenke, K. (2016). Home Offices: Plenty of Untapped Potential. DIW Economic Bulletin, 6(8), 95–104.

Brennan, D., Cass, B., Himmelweit, S., & Szebehely, M. (2012). The marketisation of care: Rationales and consequences in Nordic and liberal care regimes. Journal of European Social Policy, 22(4), 377–391.

Brenner, V. C., Carmack, C. W., & Weinstein, M. G. (1971). An empirical test of the motivation-hygiene theory. Journal of Accounting Research, 359–366.

Brewster, C., Morley, M., Buciuniene, I., Den Dulk, L., Peters, P., Poutsma, E., & Ligthart, P. E. M. (2010). The extended business case for childcare and leave arrangements in Western and Eastern Europe. Baltic Journal of Management, 5(2), 156–184.

Breyer, F., & Buchholz, W. (2008). Ökonomie des Sozialstaats (Second Edition). Heidelberg, Germany: Springer-Verlag. ← 184 | 185 →

Bundesagentur für Arbeit. (2015). Der Arbeitsmarkt in Deutschland: Frauen und Männer am Arbeitsmarkt 2014. Retrieved June 15, 2016, from Statistik/Arbeitsmarktberichterstattung:

Bünnagel, V., & Henman, B. (2007). Kleinkindbetreuung: Wahlfreiheit durch subventionierte Krippenplätze? Wirtschaftsdienst, 87(5), 309–318.

Busch, C. (2004). „Wenn das Kind in den Kindergarten geht, dann wird sie wiederkommen. Und das ist auch so gewünscht.“ — Wie und warum Unternehmen Kinderbetreuung fördern. In G. Krell (Ed.), Chancengleichheit durch Personalpolitik (pp. 453–462). Wiesbaden: Betriebswirtschaftlicher Verlag Gabler.

Busch-Heinzmann, A. (2015). Frauenberufe, Männerberufe und die „Drehtür“ – Ausmaß und Implikationen für West- und Ostdeutschland (WSI Mitteilungen No. 68).

Busch-Heinzmann, A., Holst, E., & Wieber, A. (2015). Führungskräfte – Monitor 2015: Update 2001–2013 (DIW Politikberatung Kompakt).

Butts, M. M., Casper, W. J., & Yang, T. S. (2013). How important are work–family support policies? A meta-analytic investigation of their effects on employee outcomes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 98(1), 1.

Camehl, G. F., Stahl, J. F., Schober, P. S., & Spieß, C. K. (2015). Does better, cheaper day care make for more satisfied parents? DIW Economic Bulletin, 5, 604–611.

Card, D., & Krueger, A. B. (1994). Minimum Wages and Employment: A Case Study of the Fast-Food Industry in New Jersey and Pennsylvania. The American Economic Review, 84(4), 772–793.

Casper, W. J., & Buffardi, L. C. (2004). Work-life benefits and job pursuit intentions: The role of anticipated organizational support. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 65(3), 391–410.

Casper, W. J., Martin, J. A., Buffardi, L. C., & Erdwins, C. J. (2002). Work--family conflict, perceived organizational support, and organizational commitment among employed mothers. Journal of occupational health psychology, 7(2), 99–108.

Chaudry, A., Henly, J., & Meyers, M. (2010). ACF-OPRE White paper, Conceptual framework for child-care decisions. Washington, DC. Retrieved from Administration for Children and Families, U.S Department of Health and Human services website:

Clark, S. C. (2000). Work/family border theory: A new theory of work/family balance. Human relations, 53(6), 747–770.

Cleves, M. A., Gould, W. W., & Marchenko, Y. V. (2016). An introduction to survival analysis using Stata (Third edition). College Station, Texas: Stata Press.

Coase, R. H. (1937). The nature of the firm. Economica, 4(16), 386–405. ← 185 | 186 →

Commerzbank, A. G. (2009). Evaluationsstudie Modellprojekt Kids & Co, from Prognos AG; Frankfurter Agentur für Innovation und Forschung:.

Connelly, R., Degraff, D. S., & Willis, R. (2002). If you build it, they will come: parental use of on-site child care centers. Population Research and Policy Review, 21(3), 241–273.

Connelly, R., Degraff, D. S., & Willis, R. A. (2004). The Value of Employer-Sponsored Child Care to Employees. Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society, 43(4), 759–792.

Cropanzano, R., & Mitchell, M. S. (2005). Social exchange theory: An interdisciplinary review. Journal of Management, 31(6), 874–900.

De-Charms, R. (1968). Personal causation: The internal affective determinants of behavior. New York, USA: Academic Press.

Deci, E. L. (1980). The psychology of self-determination. Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath: Lexington Books.

Deci, E. L., Connell, J. P., & Ryan, R. M. (1989). Self-determination in a work organization. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74(4), 580.

Deci, E. L., Koestner, R., & Ryan, R. M. (1999). A meta-analytic review of experiments examining the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation. Psychological bulletin, 125(6), 627.

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). The general causality orientations scale: Self-determination in personality. Journal of research in personality, 19(2), 109–134.

Del Boca, D. (2002). The effect of child care and part time opportunities on participation and fertility decisions in Italy. Journal of Population Economics, 15(3).

Den Dulk, L., Groeneveld, S., Ollier-Malaterre, A., & Valcour, M. (2013). National context in work-life research: A multi-level cross-national analysis of the adoption of workplace work-life arrangements in Europe. European Management Journal, 31(5), 478–494.

Den Dulk, L., Peters, P., & Poutsma, E. (2012). Variations in adoption of workplace work–family arrangements in Europe: the influence of welfare-state regime and organizational characteristics. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 23(13), 2785–2808.

Dickens, L. (1994). The business case for women's equality: is the carrot better than the stick? Employee Relations, 16(8), 5–18.

DIHK. (2014). Am Ball bleiben – Kinderbetreuung flexibilisieren und ausbauen: Das IHK-Unternehmensbarometer zur Kinderbetreuung 2014. Berlin, Germany.

Diktaban, C. A. (1991). Employer Supported Child Care as a Mandatory Subject of Collective Bargaining. Hofstra Labor & Employment Law Journal, 8(2), 5.

Dilger, A., Gerlach, I., & Schneider, H. (Eds.). (2007). Betriebliche Familienpolitik: Potenziale und Instrumente aus multidisziplinärer Sicht. Wiesbaden, Germany: Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften. ← 186 | 187 →

Divine-Hawkins, P., & Collins, R. C. (1983). Employer Supported Child Care: Investing in Human Resources: Executive Summary (Administration for Children, Youth and Family). Washington, DC.

Dobbin, F., & Sutton, J. R. (1998). The strength of a weak state: The rights revolution and the rise of human resources management divisions. American Journal of Sociology, 104(2), 441–476.

Döge, P., & Behnke, C. (2006). Betriebs-und Personalräte als Akteure familienbewusster Personalpolitik: Handlungsmuster von Personalvertretungen in Unternehmen und Organisationen mit dem audit berufundfamilie. Abschlussbericht (Institut für anwendungsorientierte Innovations- und Zukunftsforschung e.V.). Berlin, Germany.

Drasch, K. (2013). Educational Attainment and Family-Related Employment Interruptions in Germany: Do Changing Institutional Settings Matter? European Sociological Review, 29(5), 981–995.

Drobnic, S. (1997). Part-time work in Central and Eastern European countries. In H.-P. Blossfeld & C. Hakim (Eds.), Between equalization and marginalization: women working part-time in Europe (pp. 71–89). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Duncan, S., Edwards, R., & Reynolds, T. (2003). Motherhood, paid work and partnering: values and theories. Work, Employment & Society, 17(2), 309–330.

Eberhard, E. (2015). Jobsharing: wie trägt das Modell zur Vereinbarkeit von Familie und Beruf bei? Masterarbeit. Hochschule für Wirtschaft und Recht Berlin, Berlin, from Hochschule für Wirtschaft und Recht Berlin:.

Egbert, H., & Hildenbrand, A. (2014). Strukturelle Hemmnisse für den Ausbau der Kindertagesbetreuung in Deutschland. Sozialer Fortschritt, 11(63), 253–258.

Ehrenberg, R. G., & Smith, R. S. (2012). Modern labor economics: Theory and public policy. Upper Saddle River, New York: Prentice Hall.

Eisenberger, R., Hungtington, R., Hutchison, S., & Sowa, D. (1986). Perceived Organizational Support. Journal of Applied Psychology. (71), 500–507.

Eisenberger, R., Stinglhamber, F., Vandenberghe, C., Sucharski, I. L., & Rhoades, L. (2002). Perceived supervisor support: contributions to perceived organizational support and employee retention. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(3), 565.

Ellguth, P., & Kohaut, S. (2012). Arbeitsbeziehungen und Personalpolitik im Dienstleistungsbereich. Industrielle Beziehungen/The German Journal of Industrial Relations, 19(3), 257–289.

Erler, D. (2011). Germany: Taking a Nordic turn? In S. B. Kamerman & P. Moss (Eds.), The politics of parental leave policies. Children, parenting, gender and the labour market (pp. 119–134). Bristol: Policy.

Ermisch, J. F. (2003). An Economic Analysis of the Family. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Esping-Andersen, G. (2008). Childhood investments and skill formation. International Tax and Public Finance, 15(1), 19–44. ← 187 | 188 →

Ezra, M., & Deckman, M. (1996). Balancing work and family responsibilities: Flextime and child care in the federal government. Public Administration Review, 174–179.

Falk, A. (2007). Gift exchange in the field. Econometrica, 75(5), 1501–1511.

Feierabend, A., Mahler, P., & Staffelbach, B. (2011). Are there spillover effects of a family supportive work environment on employees without childcare responsibilities? Management Revue, 22(2), 188–209.

Feierabend, A., & Staffelbach, B. (2015). Crowding Out Reciprocity between Working Parents and Companies with Corporate Childcare. Human Resource Management. (NA).

Felfe, C., & Lalive, R. (2010). How Does Early Childcare Affect Child Development? Learning from the Children of German Unification, CESifo Area Conference on Economics of Education. Center for Economics Studies, mimeo.

Fitzenberger, B., Steffes, S., & Strittmatter, A. (2015). Return-to-job during and after parental leave. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 1–29.

Flüter-Hoffmann, C. (2005). Familienfreundliche Regelungen in Tarifverträgen und Betriebsvereinbarungen. Beispiele guter Praxis (BMFSFJ). Berlin, Germany.

Flynn, S. (2005). Why only some industries unionize: insights from reciprocity theory. Journal of Institutional Economics, 1(01), 99–120.

Fowler, J. H., & Kam, C. D. (2007). Beyond the self: Social identity, altruism, and political participation. Journal of Politics, 69(3), 813–827.

Franz, W. (1986). Neuere mikroökonomisc:he Analysen des Arbeitsmarktgeschehens. In H. Schelbert-Syfring (Ed.), Mikroökonomik des Arbeitsmarktes (pp. 7–70). Bern/Stuttgart: Haupt.

Frey, B. S. (1990). Ökonomie ist Sozialwissenschaft: Die Anwendung der Ökonomie auf neue Gebiete. München: F. Vahlen.

Frey, B. S. (1997). Not just for the money: An economic theory of personal motivation. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Frey, B. S., Homberg, F., & Osterloh, M. (2013). Organizational control systems and pay-for-performance in the public service. Organization Studies, 34(7), 949–972.

Frey, B. S., & Jegen, R. (2001). Motivation crowding theory. Journal of economic surveys, 15(5), 589–611.

Friedman, D. E. (1984). The Challenge of Employer-Supported Child Care: Meeting Parent Needs. Current Topics in Early Childhood Education, 5, 165–199.

Frodermann, C., Müller, D., & Abraham, M. (2013). Determinanten des Wiedereinstiegs von Müttern in den Arbeitsmarkt in Vollzeit oder Teilzeit. Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie, 65(4), 645–668.

Führ, M. (2003). Eigenverantwortung im Rechtsstaat. Berlin, Germany: Duncker & Humblot. ← 188 | 189 →

Fulmer, I. S., & Ployhart, R. E. (2013). Our Most Important Asset: A Multidisciplinary/Multilevel Review of Human Capital Valuation for Research and Practice. Journal of Management, 40(1), 161–192.

Gamperl, E. (2013). Was die Kita-Statistik verschweigt. Retrieved August 11, 2016, from

Gangl, M., & Ziefle, A. (2015). The Making of a Good Woman: Extended Parental Leave Entitlements and Mothers’ Work Commitment in Germany. American Journal of Sociology, 121(2), 511–563.

Gauthier, A. H., Emery, T., & Bartova, A. (2016). The labour market intentions and behaviour of stay-at-home mothers in Western and Eastern Europe. Advances in Life Course Research.

Gerlach, I. (2003). Entgeldbestandteile und geldwerte Leistungen: Rahmenbedingungen und Ausgestaltungsmöglichkeiten. In I. Gerlach (Ed.), Mittelstand und Familie. Möglichkeiten einer familienorientierten Unternehmenspolitik. Tagungsdokumentation (pp. 108–116). Münster, Germany.

Gerlach, I. (2007). Einleitung. In A. Dilger, I. Gerlach, & H. Schneider (Eds.), Betriebliche Familienpolitik. Potenziale und Instrumente aus multidisziplinärer Sicht (pp. 12–28). Wiesbaden, Germany: Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.

Gerlach, I. (2012). Unternehmen als familienpolitische Akteure – eine auch historische Einordnung. In I. Gerlach & H. Schneider (Eds.), Familie und Familienwissenschaft. Betriebliche Familienpolitik (pp. 11–27). Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden.

Gerlach, I., & Laß, I. (2012). Gesellschaftliche Rahmenbedingungen betrieblicher Familienpolitik. In I. Gerlach & H. Schneider (Eds.), Familie und Familienwissenschaft. Betriebliche Familienpolitik (pp. 29–44). Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden.

Gerlach, I., & Schneider, H. (Eds.). (2012). Familie und Familienwissenschaft. Betriebliche Familienpolitik: Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden.

Gerlach, I., Schneider, H., & Juncke, D. (2012). Betriebliche Familienpolitik in auditierten Unternehmen und Institutionen. In I. Gerlach & H. Schneider (Eds.), Familie und Familienwissenschaft. Betriebliche Familienpolitik. Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden.

Geyer, J., Haan, P., Spieß, C. K., & Wrohlich, K. (2013). Das Elterngeld und seine Wirkungen auf das Haushaltseinkommen junger Familien und die Erwerbstätigkeit von Müttern. Zeitschrift für Familienforschung, 25(2), 193–211.

Goerres, A., & Tepe, M. S. (2013). Für die Kleinen ist uns nichts zu teuer? Kindergartengebühren und ihre Determinanten in Deutschlands 95 bevölkerungsreichsten Städten zwischen 2007 und 2010. Zeitschrift für Public Policy, Recht und Management, 6(1), 169–190. ← 189 | 190 →

Goff, S. J., Mount, M. K., & Jamison, R. L. (1990). Employer supported child care, work/family conflict, and absenteeism: A field study. Personnel psychology, 43(4), 793–809.

Greene, D., & Lepper, M. R. (1978). The Hidden Costs of Reward: New Perspectives of the Psychology of Human Motivation. New York: L. Erlbaum Associates.

Greenhaus, J. H., & Powell, G. N. (2006). When work and family are allies: A theory of work-family enrichment. Academy of management review, 31(1), 72–92.

Grieß, A. (2016). Betriebliche Kinderbetreuung nimmt nur langsam zu. Retrieved June 27, 2016, from

Gross, A. E., & McMullen, P. A. (1983). Models of the help-seeking process. In B. M. DePaulo, A. Nader, & J. D. Fisher (Eds.), New directions in helping: Help-seeking (pp. 45–70). New York, USA: Academic Press.

Grover, S. L., & Crooker, K. J. (1995). Who appreciates family-responsive human resource policies: The impact of family-friendly policies on the organizational attachment of parents and non-parents. Personnel psychology, 48(2), 271–288.

Gruber, J. (2004). Public finance and public policy (3rd ed.). New York: Worth Publishers.

Gullekson, N., Griffeth, R., Vancouver, J., Kovner, C., & Cohen, D. (2014). Vouching for childcare assistance with two quasi-experimental studies. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 29(8), 994–1008.

Gupta, N. D., & Simonsen, M. (2010). Non-cognitive child outcomes and universal high quality child care. Journal of Public Economics, 94(1), 30–43.

Haan, P., & Thiemann, A. (2015). Ausweitung der in der Rentenversicherung anrechenbaren Kindererziehungszeiten: Mütter pausieren nicht länger vom Job. DIW-Wochenbericht, 82(47), 1119–1125.

Hammermann, A., Schmidt, J., & Stettes, O. (2015). Beschäftigte zwischen Karriereambitionen und Familienorientierung – Eine empirische Analyse auf Basis der BIBB/BAuA-Erwerbstätigenbefragung 2012 (Vierteljährliche Zeitschrift zur empirischen Wirtschaftsforschung No. 1).

Hancioglu, M., & Hartmann, B. (2014). What makes single mothers expand or reduce employment? Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 35(1), 27–39.

Hank, K., & Kreyenfeld, M. (2003). A multilevel analysis of child care and women's fertility decisions in Western Germany. Journal of Marriage and Family, 65(3), 584–596.

Hausmann, A.-C., Kleinert, C., & Leuze, K. (2015). Entwertung von Frauenberufen oder Entwertung von Frauen im Beruf? Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie, 67(2), 217–242.

Heckman, J. J. (2006). Skill formation and the economics of investing in disadvantaged children. Science, 312(5782), 1900–1902. ← 190 | 191 →

Heckman, J. J., LaLonde, R. J., & Smith, J. A. (1999). The economics and econometrics of active labor market programs. Handbook of labor economics, 3, 1865–2097.

Heckman, J. J., & Masterov, D. V. (2007). The productivity argument for investing in young children. Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy, 29(3), 446–493.

Heining, J., Scholz, T., & Seth, S. (2013). Linked-Employer-Employee-Daten des IAB: LIAB-Querschnittmodell 2 1993–2010 (Forschungsdatenzentrum der Bundesagentur für Arbeit im Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung).

Henninger, A., Wimbauer, C., & Dombrowski, R. (2008). Geschlechtergleichheit oder „exklusive Emanzipation “? Ungleichheitssoziologische Implikationen der aktuellen familienpolitischen Reformen Berliner Journal für Soziologie, 18(1), 99–128.

Herzberg, F., Mausner, B., & Snyderman, B. B. (1959). The motivation to work (Second). Oxford, England: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Hipp, L., & Leuze, K. (2015). Institutionelle Determinanten einer partnerschaftlichen Aufteilung von Erwerbsarbeit in Europa und den USA. Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie, 67(4), 659–684.

Hirano, K., Imbens, G. W., & Ridder, G. (2003). Efficient estimation of average treatment effects using the estimated propensity score. Econometrica, 71(4), 1161–1189.

Hobler, D., Pfahl, S., & Weeber, S. (2016a). Durchschnittliche Arbeitszeiten der Erwerbstätigen: Gender Time Gap hat leicht abgenomen (WSI GenderDatenPortal No. 04/2016).

Hobler, D., Pfahl, S., & Weeber, S. (2016b). Wochenarbeitszeiten abhängig beschäftigter Frauen: Frauen arbeiten zunehmend kürzer (WSI GenderDatenPortal No. 04/2016).

Hoherz, S. (2014). Maternity Leave in the Context of Couples: The impact of both partners’ characteristics and employment experiences on mothers’ re-entry into the labour market. (SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research No. 647).

Holst, E. & Kirsch, A. (2016). Managerinnen Barometer 2016 (DIW Wochenbericht No. 02/2016).

Homans, G. C. (1954). The cash posters: A study of a group of working girls. American Sociological Review, 19(6), 724–733.

Hoobler, J. M. (2007). On-site or out-of-sight? Family-friendly child care provisions and the status of working mothers. Journal of Management Inquiry, 16(4), 372–380.

Huesmann, M., & Gärtner, M. (2015). Nicht überall wo Teilzeit drin ist, kommt Familienfreundlichkeit oder Work-Life-Balance heraus. Ein Diskussionsbeitrag. In E. Hanappi-Egger & R. Bendl (Eds.), Diversität, Diversifizierung und (Ent)Solidarisierung: Eine Standortbestimmung der Diversitätsforschung im deutschen Sprachraum (pp. 257–270). Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien.

Hwang, S.-H., & Bowles, S. (2014). Optimal Incentives with State-Dependent Preferences. Journal of Public Economic Theory, 16(5), 681–705. ← 191 | 192 →

IfD. (2013). Akzeptanzanalyse II Nutzung und Bewertung staatlicher Leistungen für die Betreuung und Förderung von Kindern sowie für die Altersvorsorge von Familien: Abschlussbericht. Allensbach, Germany.

IGES. (2013). Familien in der Alterssicherung: Modul im Rahmen der Gesamtevaluation der ehe-und familienbezogenen Leistungen. Berlin, Germany.

Jirjahn, U., & Struewing, C. (2015). Single Motherhood in East and West Germany: What Can Explain the Differences? (Research papers in economics No. 8).

Kahneman, D., & Tversky, A. (1979). Prospect theory: An analysis of decision under risk. Econometrica: Journal of the econometric society, 47(2), 263–291.

Kahneman, D., & Tversky, A. (1992). Advances in prospect theory: Cumulative representation of uncertainty. Journal of Risk and uncertainty, 5(4), 297–323.

Keddi, B., Zerle, C., Lange, A., & Cornelißen, W. (2010). Der Alltag von Mehrkinderfamilien – Ressourcen und Bedarfe. Forschungsbericht. Deutsches Jugendinstitut, from Deutsches Jugendinstitut:.

Kelleter, K. (2009). Selbstständige in Deutschland: Ergebnisse des Mikrozensus 2008. Wirtschaft und Statistik, 12, 1204–1216.

Kelly, E., Kossek, E., Hammer, L. B., Durham, M., Bray, J., Chermack, K.,… Kaskubar, D. (2008). Getting There from Here: Research on the Effects of Work-Family Initiatives on Work-Family Conflict and Business Outcomes. The Academy of Management annals, 2, 305–349.

Kelly, E. L. (2003). The Strange History of Employer-Sponsored Child Care: Interested Actors, Uncertainty, and the Transformation of Law in Organizational Fields. American Journal of Sociology, 109(3), 606–649.

Khandker, S. R., Koolwal, G. B., & Samad, H. A. (2010). Handbook on impact evaluation: quantitative methods and practices. Washington, DC: World Bank Publications.

Kinnie, N., Hutchinson, S., Purcell, J., Rayton, B., & Swart, J. (2005). Satisfaction with HR practices and commitment to the organisation: why one size does not fit all. Human Resource Management Journal, 15(4), 9–29.

Kirchgässner, G. (2008). Homo oeconomicus: The Economic Model of Behaviour and Its Application in Economics and Other Social Sciences. The European Heritage in Economics and the Social Science: Vol. 6. New York, USA: Springer.

Klärner, A., & Keim, S. (2011). (Re-)Traditionalisierung und Flexibilität. Intergenerationale Unterstützungsleistungen und die Reproduktion von Geschlechterungleichheiten in West- und Ostdeutschland. In P. Berger, K. Hank, & A. Tölke (Eds.), Reproduktion von Ungleichheit durch Arbeit und Familie (pp. 121–144). Wiesbaden, Germany: VS Verlag.

Klein, P. (2014). Incomplete contracts. In M. Augier & D. J. Teece (Eds.), The Palgrave encyclopedia of strategic management. Basingstoke, Hampshire, New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ← 192 | 193 →

Klenner, C., Brehmer, W., Plegge, M., & Bohulskyy, Y. (2013). Förderung der Vereinbarkeit von Familie und Beruf in Tarifverträgen und Betriebsvereinbarungen in Deutschland: Eine empirische Analyse (WSI-Diskussionspapier No. 184).

Kluve, J. & Schmitz, S. (2014). Social norms and mothers’ labor market attachment: the medium-run effects of parental benefits (IZA Discussion Paper No. 8115).

Kluve, J., & Tamm, M. (2013). Parental leave regulations, mothers’ labor force attachment and fathers’ childcare involvement: evidence from a natural experiment. Journal of Population Economics, 26(3), 983–1005.

Koch, A. K., & Nafziger, J. (2015). A Real-Effort Experiment on Gift Exchange with Temptation (IZA Discussion Papers No. 9084).

Kohaut, S., & Möller, I. (2016). Führungspositionen in der Privatwirtschaft: Im Osten sind Frauen öfter an der Spitze (IAB Kurzbericht No. 02/2016).

Konietzka, D., & Kreyenfeld, M. (2010). The growing educational divide in mothers’ employment: an investigation based on the German micro-censuses 1976–2004. Work, Employment & Society, 24(2), 260–278.

Korpi, W., Ferrarini, T., & Englund, S. (2013). Women's opportunities under different family policy constellations: Gender, class, and inequality tradeoffs in western countries re-examined. Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State & Society, 20(1), 1–40.

Kosfeld, M., & Neckermann, S. (2011). Getting more work for nothing? Symbolic awards and worker performance. American Economic Journal: Microeconomics, 3(3), 86–99.

Kossek, E. E. (1994). The Dominant Logic of Employer-Sponsored Work and Family Initiatives: Human Resource Managers' Institutional Role. Human relations, 47(9), 1121–1149.

Kossek, E. E., & Nichol, V. (1992). The Effects of on-site child care on employee attitudes and performance. Personnel psychology, 45(3), 485–509.

Kreyenfeld, M. (2015). Maternal and Paternal Employment across the Life Course. In R. A. Scott & S. M. Kosslyn (Eds.), Emerging Trends in the Social and Behavioral Sciences (pp. 1–15). Hoboken, NJ, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Kreyenfeld, M., & Hank, K. (2000). Does the availability of child care influence the employment of mothers? Findings from western Germany. Population Research and Policy Review, 19(4), 317–337.

Krueger, A. B., & Summers, L. H. (1988). Efficiency Wages and the Inter-Industry Wage Structure. Econometrica, 56(2), 259.

Kube, S., Maréchal, M. A., & Puppe, C. (2012). The currency of reciprocity: Gift exchange in the workplace. The American Economic Review, 102(4), 1644–1662.

Lang, K., & Leonard, J. S. (1987). Unemployment and the structure of labor markets. American Economic Review, 75, 792–805. ← 193 | 194 →

Latham, G. P., & Locke, E. A. (1979). Goal setting—A motivational technique that works. Organizational Dynamics, 8(2), 68–80.

Lauber, V. & Storck, J. (2016). Betriebliche Unterstützung bei der Kinderbetreuung steigert die Zufriedenheit von Müttern (DIW Wochenbericht No. 10).

Lauber, V., Storck, J., Spieß, C. K., & Fuchs, N. (2014). Vereinbarkeit von Beruf und Familie von Paaren mit nicht schulpflichtigen Kindern–unter spezifischer Berücksichtigung der Erwerbskonstellation beider Partner. Ausgewählte Ergebnisse auf der Basis der FiD-Daten (» Familien in Deutschland «) (Politikberatung Kompakt No. 88).

Lehmann, C. (2011). Familienbewusste Personalpolitik und Unternehmenserfolg. Eine empirische Untersuchung (Diskussionspapiere des Instituts für Organisationsökonomik No. 4).

Lehrer, E. L., Santero, T., & Mohan-Neill, S. (1991). The impact of employer-sponsored child care on female labor supply behavior: Evidence from the nursing profession. Population Research and Policy Review, 10(3), 197–212.

Leibfried, S., & Obinger, H. (2003). The state of the welfare state: German social policy between macroeconomic retrenchment and microeconomic recalibration. West European Politics, 26(4), 199–218.

Lenbet, A. (2014). Kita, Krippe, Tagesmutter: Die beste Betreuung für glückliche Kinder und entspannte Eltern. Stuttgart: Trias.

Lepak, D. P., & Snell, S. A. (1999). The human resource architecture: Toward a theory of human capital allocation and development. Academy of management review, 24(1), 31–48.

Lepak, D. P., & Snell, S. A. (2002). Examining the human resource architecture: The relationships among human capital, employment, and human resource configurations. Journal of Management, 28(4), 517–543.

Lepak, D. P., & Snell, S. A. (2007). Employment Subsystems and the ‘HR Architecture’. In P. F. Boxall, J. Purcell, & P. M. Wright (Eds.), Oxford handbooks. The Oxford handbook of human resource management (pp. 210–231). Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press.

Lewis, S. (1991). Motherhood and employment: The impact of social and organizational values. In A. Phoenix, Woollett A., & E. Lloyd (Eds.), Motherhood: Meanings, practices, and ideologies (pp. 195–215). London, England: Sage.

Lindberg, L. D. (1996). Women's decisions about breastfeeding and maternal employment. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 58(1), 239–251.

Lindenberg, S. (2001). Intrinsic motivation in a new light. Kyklos, 54(2-3), 317–342.

Lindenberg, S. (2006). Prosocial behavior, solidarity, and framing processes. In A. F. Fetchenhauer, B. Buunk, & S. Lindenberg (Eds.), Solidarity and Prosocial Behavior (pp. 23–44). New York, USA: Springer. ← 194 | 195 →

Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (2004). What should we do about motivation theory? Six recommendations for the twenty-first century. Academy of management review, 29(3), 388–403.

Loft, L. T., & Hogan, D. (2014). Does care matter? Care capital and mothers' time to paid employment. Journal of population research, 31(3), 237–252.

Love, J. M., Meckstroth, A. L., & Schochet, P. (1996). Are they in any real danger?: What research does and doesnot tell us about child care quality and childrens wellbeing (Child Care Research and Policy Papers).

Ludwig-Mayerhofer, W., Allmendinger, J., Hirseland, A., & Schneider, W. (2011). The power of money in dual-earner couples: A comparative study. Acta Sociologica, 54(4), 367–383.

Luhmann, N. (2005). Soziologische Aufklärung: Aufsätze zur Theorie sozialer Systeme (Seventh). Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer-Verlag.

Lutz, K. (2014). Compensating dissatisfaction in the job by turning to the family? The impact of current occupation on timing of first births in Germany. Advances in Life Course Research, 21, 43–58.

Lutz, K. (2016). Erwerbsunterbrechungen und Berufswechsel von Müttern nach der Geburt ihres ersten Kindes. Zeitschrift für Familienforschung-Journal of Familiy Research, 28(1).

Maier, G. W., Streicher, B., Jonas, E., & Frey, D. (2007). Bedürfnisse nach organisationaler Gerechtigkeit und Bereitschaft zu innovativem Handeln. Wirtschaftspsychologie, 9(2).

Maslow, A. (1954). Motivation and personality. USA: Hoper and Raw.

Mauno, S., & Ruokolainen, M. (2015). Does Organizational Work-Family Support Benefit Temporary and Permanent Employees Equally in a Work-Family Conflict Situation in Relation to Job Satisfaction and Emotional Energy at Work and at Home? Journal of Family Issues, 1–25.

Mauss, M. (1967). The gift: Forms and function of exchange in archaic societies. New York, USA: Norton.

Maximiano, S., Sloof, R., & Sonnemans, J. (2007). Gift Exchange in a Multi-Worker Firm The Economic Journal, 117(522), 1025–1050.

Mayo, E. (1949). The social problems of an industrial civilization. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

Michaud, P., & Tatsiramos, K. (2011). Fertility and female employment dynamics in Europe: the effect of using alternative econometric modeling assumptions. Journal of Applied Econometrics, 26(4), 641–668.

Mill, J. S. (1874). On the Definition of Political Economy, and on the Method of Investigation Proper to It. In J. S. Mill (Ed.), Essays on Some Unsettled Questions of Political Economy (2nd ed.). London, England: Longmans, Green, Reader & Dyer. ← 195 | 196 →

Mocan, H. N. (1995). Quality-Adjusted Cost Functions for Child-Care Centers. American Economic Review, 85(2), 409–413.

Mocan, H. N. (1997). Cost functions, efficiency, and quality in day care centers. Journal of Human Resources, 17(4), 861–891.

Mocan, H. N. (2007). Can consumers detect lemons? An empirical analysis of information asymmetry in the market for child care. Journal of Population Economics, 4(20), 743–780.

Mohe, M., Dorniok, D.-S. D., & Kaiser, S. (2010). Auswirkungen von betrieblichen Work-Life Balance Maßnahmen auf Unternehmen: Stand der empirischen Forschung. Zeitschrift für Management, 5(2), 105–139.

Morrissey, T. W., & Warner, M. E. (2011). An exploratory study of the impacts of an employer-supported child care program. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 26(3), 344–354.

Müller, K.-U., Neumann, M., & Wrohlich, K. (2015). Familienarbeitszeit Reloaded: Vereinfachung durch pauschalierte Leistung und Flexibilisierung durch Arbeitszeitkorridor: Expertise im Auftrag der Friedrich-Ebert Stiftung. Endbericht (Politikberatung Kompakt No. 105). Berlin.

Müller, K.-U. & Wrohlich, K. (2014). Two Steps Forward-One Step Back?: Evaluating Contradicting Child Care Policies in Germany (SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research No. 684).

Müller, W., Handl, J., & Willms, A. (1983). Strukturwandel der Frauenarbeit 1880–1980. Frankfurt am Main: Campus Verlag.

Muse, L. A., & Pichler, S. (2011). A comparison of types of support for lower-skill workers: Evidence for the importance of family supportive supervisors. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 79(3), 653–666.

Ng, T. W. H., & Feldman, D. C. (2015). Felt Obligations to Reciprocate to an Employer, Preferences for Mobility across Employers, and Gender: Three-Way Interaction Effects on Subsequent Voice Behavior. Journal of Vocational Behavior. (90), 36–45.

Nieuwenhuis, R., Need, A., & Van Der Kolk, Henk. (2012). Institutional and Demographic Explanations of Women's Employment in 18 OECD Countries, 1975–1999. Journal of Marriage and Family, 74(3), 614–630.

Nowak, M. J., Naude, M., & Thomas, G. (2013). Returning to Work After Maternity Leave: Childcare and Workplace Flexibility. Journal of Industrial Relations, 55(1), 118–135.

OECD. (2015). LFS by sex and age – indicators: Dataset Level Metadata. Retrieved June 14, 2016, from

Oechsler, W. A., & Paul, C. (2015). Personal und Arbeit: Einführung in das Personalmanagement (10th ed.). Oldenbourgs Lehr- und Handbücher der Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaften. München: De Gruyter Oldenbourg. ← 196 | 197 →

Ollo-López, A., & Goñi-Legaz, S. (2015). Differences in work–family conflict: which individual and national factors explain them? The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 1–27.

Osterloh, M., & Frey, B. S. (2000). Motivation, knowledge transfer, and organizational forms. Organization science, 11(5), 538–550.

Osterloh, M., Weibel, A., & Wiemann, M. (2014). A Behavioral Economics Perspective on the Overjustification Effect: Crowding-In and Crowding-Out of Intrinsic Motivation. In M. Gagne (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Work Engagement, Motivation, and Self-Determination Theory (pp. 72–85). Oxford University Press, USA.

Pasamar, S., & Alegre, J. (2014). Adoption and use of work-life initiatives: Looking at the influence of institutional pressures and gender. European Management Journal, 33(3), 214–224.

Perry, J. L. (1997). Antecedents of public service motivation. Journal of public administration research and theory, 7(2), 181–197.

Pollmann-Schult, M. (2015). What mothers want.: The impact of structural and cultural factors on mothers’ preferred working hours in Western Europe. Advances in Life Course Research. (Special Issue), 1–20.

Powell, G. N. (1997). The sex difference in employee inclinations regarding work-family programs: Why does it exist, should we care, and what should be done about it (if anything). In S. Parasurman & J. H. Greenhaus (Eds.), Integrating work and family: Challenges and choices for a changing world (pp. 167–174). Westport, CT: Quorum/Greenwood.

Ratnasingam, P., Spitzmueller, C., King, W. R., Rubino, C., Luksyte, A., Matthews, R. A., & Fisher, G. G. (2012). Can on-site childcare have detrimental work outcomes? Examining the moderating roles of family supportive organization perceptions and childcare satisfaction. Journal of occupational health psychology, 17(4), 435–444.

Ravallion, M., Galasso, E., Lazo, T., & Philipp, E. (2005). What Can Ex-participants Reveal about a Program’s Impact? Journal of Human Resources, 40(1), 208–230.

Rawl, J. (1971). A theory of justice. Cambridge: Havard University Press.

Reid, P. (2002). A critical evaluation of the effect of participation in budget target setting on motivation. Managerial Auditing Journal, 17(3), 122–129.

Roe, B., Whittington, L. A., Fein, S. B., & Teisl, M. F. (1999). Is there competition between breast-feeding and maternal employment? Demography, 36(2), 157–171.

Roehling, P. V., Roehling, M. V., & Moen, P. (2001). The relationship between work-life policies and practices and employee loyalty: A life course perspective. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 22(2), 141–170.

Rohe, K. (1994). Politik–Begriffe und Wirklichkeiten: Eine Einführung in das politische Denken (2nd ed.). Stuttgart, Germany: Kohlhammer. ← 197 | 198 →

Rosenstiel, L. von. (1975). Die motivationalen Grundlagen des Verhaltens in Organisationen,: Leistung und Zufriedenheit (Vol. 2). Berlin, Germany: Duncker & Humblot.

Rothausen, J., Gonzalez, A., Clarke, E., & O'Dell, L. (1998). Family-friendly backflahs? Fact or fiction? The case of organizations on-site child care centers. Personnel psychology, 51(3), 685–706.

Ruffle, B. J. (1999). Gift giving with emotions. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 39(4), 399–420.

Samuelson, P. A. (1954). The pure theory of public expenditure. The review of economics and statistics, 4(36), 387–389.

Sandner, M. (2015). Effects of Early Childhood Intervention on Fertility and Maternal Employment: Evidence from a Randomized Controlled Trial (SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research No. 799).

Schafer, A., & Gottschall, K. (2015). From wage regulation to wage gap: how wage-setting institutions and structures shape the gender wage gap across three industries in 24 European countries and Germany. Cambridge Journal of Economics, 39(2), 467–496.

Schäffle, A. (1958). Fabrikwesen und Fabrikarbeiter (Vol. 3). Stuttgart: Deutsches Staatswörterbuch.

Schein, E. (1980). Organizational Psychology (3rd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, USA: Prentice Hall.

Scheuer, M. (1987). Zur Leistungsfähigkeit neoklassischer Arbeitsmarkttheorien. Bonn: Verlag Neue Gesellschaft.

Schmelzer, P., Kurz, K., & Schulze, K. (2015). Einkommensnachteile von Müttern im Vergleich zu kinderlosen Frauen in Deutschland. Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie, 67(4), 737–762.

Schneider, H., Gerlach, I., Juncke, D., & Krieger, J. (2012). Betriebswirtschaftliche Effekte einer familienbewussten Personalpolitik. In Betriebliche Familienpolitik (pp. 209–239). Springer.

Schober, P. S., & Stahl, J. F. (2014). Trends in der Kinderbetreuung: sozioökonomische Unterschiede verstärken sich in Ost und West. DIW-Wochenbericht, 81(40), 986–994.

Schober, P. S. (2013). Maternal labor market return and domestic work after childbirth in Britain and Germany. Community, Work & Family, 16(3), 307–326.

Schober, P. S. & Spieß, C. K. (2014). Local day-care quality and maternal employment: Evidence from East and West Germany (SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research No. 649).

Schreyer, J. (2015). Part-time employment while receiving parental leave benefits. Zeitschrift für Familienforschung, 27(1), 53–77.

Schröder, M., Siegers, R., & Spieß, C. K. (2013). Familien in Deutschland" – FiD. Schmollers Jahrbuch, 133, 595–606. ← 198 | 199 →

Seeleib-Kaiser, M. (2011). Family Policies in Britain and Germany Innovative Ways of Coping with Old and New Challenges: Enterprises as Actors of Family Policy? (presentation at the Mid-Term Conference of the Anglo-German Foundation Conference on Creating Sustainable Growth in Europe, Berlin, Nov. 29-).

Seils, E. & Kaschowitz, J. (2015). Wie verbreitet sind Betriebskindergärten? (WSI-Diskussionspapier No. 21).

Sen, A., & Williams, B. (1982). Introduction. In A. Sen & B. Williams (Eds.), Utilitarianism and beyond (pp. 1–21). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Sesselmeier, W., & Blauermel, G. (1998). Arbeitsmarkttheorien: Ein Überblick (Second). PhysicaLehrbuch. Heidelberg: Physica-Verlag.

Shadish, W. R., Cook, T. D., & Campbell, D. T. (2002). Experimental and quasi-experimental designs for generalized causal inference. Boston, USA: Houghton, Mifflin and Company.

Shapiro, C., & Stiglitz, J. E. (1984). Equilibrium unemployment as a worker discipline device. The American Economic Review, 74(3), 433–444.

Silim, A., & Stirling, A. (2014). Women and flexible working: improving female employment outcomes in Europe. Institut for Public Policy Research, JP Morgen Chase & Co, London, UK, from Institut for Public Policy Research, JP Morgen Chase & Co:.

Sommerfeld, K. (2009). Older Babies-More Active Mothers? How Maternal Labor Supply Changes as the Child Grows. Schmollers Jahrbuch. (129), 227–240.

Spieß, C. K. (2011). Vereinbarkeit von Familie und Beruf–wie wirksam sind deutsche „Care Policies “? Perspektiven der Wirtschaftspolitik, 12(1), 4–27.

Spiess, C. K., & Wrohlich, K. (2008). The Parental Leave Benefit Reform in Germany: Costs and Labour Market Outcomes of Moving towards the Nordic Model. Population Research and Policy Review, 27(5), 575–591.

Spitzley, H. (2012). Theorie und Empirie der Arbeitszeitflexibilisierung—Leitlinien zur Qualitätsverbesserung der betrieblichen Arbeitszeitgestaltung. In I. Gerlach & H. Schneider (Eds.), Familie und Familienwissenschaft. Betriebliche Familienpolitik (pp. 125–140). Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden.

Stadler, L. (2014). Essays in Family Economics. Dissertation, Munich, Germany. Retrieved August 12, 2016, from

Statistisches Bundesamt. (2004). Erwerbstätigenquote: Ergebnisse des Mikrozensus. Wiesbaden.

Statistisches Bundesamt. (2014). Bevölkerung und Erwerbstätigkeit: Stand und Entwicklung der Erwerbstätigkeit in Deutschland (Fachserie 1 No. Reihe 4.1.1.).

Statistisches Bundesamt. (2015). Erwerbsquoten und Erwerbstätigenquoten nach Geschlecht 1960 – 2014. Retrieved June 14, 2016, from ← 199 | 200 →

Statistisches Bundesamt. (2016a). Betreuungsquoten der Kinder unter 6 Jahren in Kindertagesbetreuung am 01.03.2015 nach Ländern. Retrieved August 11, 2016, from Statistisches Bundesamt:

Statistisches Bundesamt. (2016b). 14 % der erwerbstätigen Frauen waren 2014 für ihren Job überqualifiziert. Retrieved June 15, 2016, from

Statistisches Bundesamt. (2016c). Erwerbsbeteiligung: Erwerbstätige und Erwerbstätigenquote nach Geschlecht und Alter 2005 und 2014. Retrieved June 16, 2016, from

Stiglitz, J. E. (1974). Alternative theories of wage determination and unemployment in LDC's: The labor turnover model. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 2(88), 194–227.

Stock, J. H., & Watson, M. W. (2007). Introduction to econometrics (2nd ed.). The Addison-Wesley series in economics. Boston: Pearson/Addison Wesley.

Stuth, S., Hennig, M., & Allmendinger, J. (2009). Die Bedeutung des Berufs für die Dauer von Erwerbsunterbrechungen (WZB Discussion Paper No. 2009–001).

Teele, D. (2016). An Introduction to Event History Analysis. Retrieved June 24, 2016, from

Textor, M. R. (2016). Pro-Kopf-Ausgaben für Kindertagesbetreuung: 2006–2014. Retrieved August 12, 2016, from Instituts für Pädagogik und Zukunftsforschung:

Thaler, R. H. (1996). Doing economics without the Homo Economicus. In S. G. Medema & Samuels W.G. (Eds.), Foundations of research in economics. How do economists do economics. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Thater, C. (2015). Kinderbetreuung und öffentliche Finanzen: Eine empirische Analyse der Determinanten regionaler Gebührenunterschiede, der Verteilungswirkung sowie der Bereitstellungskosten staatlicher Kinderbetreuung in Deutschland. Dissertation. Technische Universität Dresden. Retrieved August 12, 2016, from Technische Universität Dresden:

Then, V., Münscher, R., & Stahlschmidt, S. (2014). Studie zu den Effekten betrieblicher Kinderbetreuung. Ein CSI Bericht unter Verwendung des Social Return on Investment (CSI Beratung, Heidelberg).

Thomson Reuters Foundation & Rockefeller Foundation. (2015). Women at work: The 5 key issues facing women working in the G20. Retrieved June 21, 2016, from ← 200 | 201 →

Turner, J. C. (1975). Social comparison and social identity: Some prospects for intergroup behaviour. European journal of social psychology, 5(1), 1–34.

Tyler, T. R., & Blader, S. L. (2000). Cooperation in groups: Procedural justice, social identity, and behavioral engagement. Essays in social psychology. Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press.

van Ham, M., & Büchel, F. (2006). Unwilling or unable? Spatial and socio-economic restrictions on females’ labour market access. Regional Studies, 40(03), 345–357.

van Lancker, W. & Ghysels, J. (2013). Great expectations, but how to achieve them?: Explaining patterns of inequality in childcare use across 31 developed countries (Centre for social policy No. 13/05).

Volkmann, L. (2003). Homo oeconomicus: Studien zur Modellierung eines neuen Menschenbilds in der englischen Literatur vom Mittelalter bis zum 18. Jahrhundert. Anglistische Forschungen: Bd. 326. Heidelberg: Winter.

Wagner, M. (2012). The impact of social support networks on maternal employment: A comparison of West German, East German and migrant mothers of pre-school children (SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research No. 483).

Wagner, S. (2015). Frauen und Männer am Arbeitsmarkt: Traditionelle Erwerbs- und Arbeitszeitmuster sind nach wie vor verbreitet (IAB Kurzbericht No. 4).

Weibl, A. (2010). Managerial objectives of formal control: High motivation control mechanism. In K. Bijlsma-Frankema, L. B. Cardinal, & L. B. Sitkin (Eds.), Control in organizaton: New directions in theory and research. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Weiss, A. (1980). Job queues and layoffs in labor markets with flexible wages. The journal of political economy, 88(3), 526–538.

Weiss, A. (1990). Efficiency wages: Models of unemployment, layoffs, and wage dispersion (1st ed.). New Jersey: Princeton University Press.

Welteke, C., & Wrohlich, K. (2016). Peer Effects in Parental Leave Decisions (IAB-DiskAB : Diskussionskreis zur Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung). Nürnberg, Germany.

Werding, M. & Hofmann, H. (2005). Die fiskalische Bilanz eines Kindes im deutschen Steuer- und Sozialsystem (ifo Forschungsbericht No. 27). Munich, Germany.

Weßler-Poßberg, D. (2014). Betriebliche Angebote zur Vereinbarkeit von Familie und Beruf im Spannungsverhältnis von Geschlecht und Qualifikation. Dissertation (Universität Duisburg-Essen, Fakultät für Bildungswissenschaften).

Wrohlich, K. (2004). Child care costs and mothers' labor supply: An empirical analysis for Germany (SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research No. 412).

Wrohlich, K. (2011). Labor Supply and Child Care Choices in a Rationed Child Care Market (DIW Discussion Papers No. 1169).

Wrohlich, K., Berger, E., Geyer, J., Haan, P., Sengül, D., Spieß, C. K., & Thiemann, A. (2012). Elterngeld Monitor: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung. ← 201 | 202 →

Yellen, J. L. (1984). Efficiency wage models of unemployment. The American Economic Review. (105), 200–205.

Zabel, C. (2012). Adult workers in theory or practice? Lone mothers' participation in active labour market programmes in Germany. Journal of Comparative Social Work, 6(2), 1–21.

Zabel, C. (2013). Does activation increase lone mothers' employment chances?: Effects of training and workfare for lone mothers receiving means-tested benefits in Germany. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 33(7/8), 453–473.

Zagel, H. (2014). Are All Single Mothers the Same? Evidence from British and West German Women's Employment Trajectories. European Sociological Review, 30(1), 49–63.

Zagel, H. (2015). Understanding Differences in Labour Market Attachment of Single Mothers in Great Britain and West Germany. (ZeS-Working Paper No. 03/2015).

Zeytinoglu, U., Isik, U., Cooke, B., Gordon, M., & Mann, S. (2010). Employer Offered Family Support Programs, Gender and Voluntary and Involuntary Part-Time Work. Relations industrielles, 65(2), 177.

Ziefle, A., & Gangl, M. (2014). Do Women Respond to Changes in Family Policy? A Quasi-Experimental Study of the Duration of Mothers' Employment Interruptions in Germany. European Sociological Review, 30(5), 562–581.