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Innovation, Complexity and Policy

Contributions from 30 years of innovation policy research in Austria

Edited By Matthias Weber

This book brings together a set of contributions that show the breadth and depth of the scientific work of Josef Fröhlich and his influence on Austrian research, technology and innovation (RTI) policy. It is edited in honour of the occasion of his retirement as Head of Innovation Systems Department at the AIT Austrian Institute of Technology. The contributors provide an overview of important issues of debate at the intersection of innovation studies and government policy, which have been pivotal for the modernisation and consolidation of the Austrian innovation system since the early 1990s.

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Global firms and national innovation systems: the case of Austria (Bernhard Dachs / Georg Zahradnik)

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Bernhard Dachs, Georg Zahradnik

Global firms and national innovation systems: the case of Austria

Abstract: We study the internationalisation of business R&D. The R&D expenditures of foreign-owned have increased in nearly all countries where data is available. Their share is highest in high-technology industries. The share of service industry is increasing fast. Austria is among the countries with the highest share of foreign-owned firms on business R&D expenditures.

1 Introduction

Foreign-owned firms are among the top performers of research and development (R&D) in many countries. Thus, they have a considerable influence on the technological capabilities of countries, and, in turn, determine competitiveness to a considerable degree. This makes the internationalisation of business R&D a key dimension of science, innovation and technology policy. By internationalisation of R&D, we mean the fact that firms conduct research and development at locations outside their home countries. The internationalisation of business R&D is part of a larger trend towards internationalisation in science. Signs of this general trend are the rising shares of publications and patents involving persons from different countries; the increase in trans-border joint ventures; the mobility of researchers and students, but also increased policy efforts towards internationalisation at the transnational level (‘Open Innovation, Open Science, Open to the World’).

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