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International Law on Antarctic Mineral Resource Exploitation

Runyu Wang

This book analyzes the legal regime of the exploitation of the mineral resources in the Antarctic. Therefore, it elaborates on the development of the Antarctic Treaty and the Antarctic Treaty System (ATS). The author examines the history and influence of the Convention for the Regulation of Antarctic Mineral Resource Activities (CRAMRA), which purpose it is to prohibit unregulated mineral resource activities in Antarctica, and its provisions are extremely strict with the aim of environmental protection. Through analyzing and comparing the CRAMRA and the 1991 Environmental Protocol, the book concludes that it is not beyond credulity to imagine that a new round of discussion on Antarctic mineral exploration will be held in the near future.

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Part 2: CRAMRA


← 86 | 87 →

Part 2:   CRAMRA

Despite being mentioned at the Antarctic Treaty Conference, the original Atlantic Treaty does not deal with mineral exploration and exploitation.440 CRAMRA, as a component of the Antarctic Treaty System, fills a gap in the system. CRAMRA covers mineral resources, meaning all non-living natural, non-renewable resources, including fossil fuels, metallic and non-metallic minerals.441 Although it failed to enter into force, it is still worth intensive study to draw out the lessons which might be useful for a future mineral resources regime. CRAMRA not only provides the general principles for mining activities in Antarctica, it also establishes institutions and regulates operational provisions.

A.   Background

I.   Preface to Mining Negotiations

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