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Logic and Its Philosophy

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Jan Woleński

This collection of essays examines logic and its philosophy. The author investigates the nature of logic not only by describing its properties but also by showing philosophical applications of logical concepts and structures. He evaluates what logic is and analyzes among other aspects the relations of logic and language, the status of identity, bivalence, proof, truth, constructivism, and metamathematics. With examples concerning the application of logic to philosophy, he also covers semantic loops, the epistemic discourse, the normative discourse, paradoxes, properties of truth, truth-making as well as theology, being and logical determinism. The author concludes with a philosophical reflection on nothingness and its modelling.

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XVI. Normativity of Logic

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XVINormativity of Logic

The view that logical rules act as norms or at least performs a normative function was always associated with debates about the nature of logic since antiquity to our times. This fact can be very easily documented by considering various accounts of logic as a science, very sophisticated as well as quite popular. Consider the following list of historical understandings of logic (see Risse 1980); I follow Risse’s terminology, but note that the last entry should be phrased by the words l’art de penser, if we want to honour the nationality of its proponents of this understanding of logic:

   (A)   dialectic (analysis and synthesis of concepts; Plato);

   (B)   analytic (deduction; Aristotle);

   (C)   organon (methods of reasoning; Aristotle);

   (D)   canonic (norms of knowledge; Epicurus);

   (E)   medicina mentis (descriptive and normative account of mental capacities; Cicero);

   (F)   Vernuftslehre (rules of pure reason; the tradition of philosophia rationalis);

   (G)   Kunstlehre (the art of arguing; Husserl);

   (H)   Wissenschaftslehre (the theory of science);

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