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Human Trafficking as a Quintessence of 21st Century Slavery

The Vulnerability of Nigerians in Austria

Chigozie DDr. Nnebedum

This book is a contribution towards a better understanding of the nature of the international crime of human trafficking. It is an impulse towards finding a new way at the international levels, and encouraging cooperation among nations in the fight against human trafficking and its root causes. The author analyzes human trafficking, which can be termed as «modern-day slavery» and in its complexity and dynamism ends up in the exploitation of the victims for the personal gains of a person or group of persons. A majority of the victims, especially women, end up in the sex industries. In most cases people are transported from the so-called underdeveloped to supposedly developed regions. As a result, women and girls are smuggled yearly from underdeveloped countries, for example Nigeria, to Europe and America.

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4 Estimation of Human Trafficking in Résumé


4.1 Estimation of Human Trafficking: A General Short Appraisal

According to estimates, as of 2005, there were 12.3 million victims of forced labour worldwide and about 2.4 million of them were victims of human trafficking (Guggenheimer et al. 2009, p. 26). International Labour Organisation (ILO) reports that about 20% of the whole forced labour and around 1/4 of those working in private domestic households are provided by human traffickers (ILO 2005, in Guggenheimer et al. 2009, p. 58). The United States (U.S) government estimates the victims’ number to be in the neighbourhood of 600,000–800,000 each year across the globe (U.S. Trafficking in Person Report 2005, 2007, online version). ILO issued a report in 2012 covering between the year 2002 and 2011 in which it states that the number of victims of forced labour and human trafficking globally is to be estimated at about 20.9 million and 5.5 million of this number are children (ILO: Global Estimation of Forced Labour 2012; European Union: Eurostat 2013). ILO reports that globally 43% of the victims are trafficked for commercial sexual exploitation and 32% for other labour related exploitations, such as, work in the agricultural sectors, industries or construction sites (ILO 2005: “Forced Labour and Human Trafficking: Estimating the Profits.”). In 2013, Eurostat reported that the number of people that were believed to be in some sort of forced labour and trafficking related engagements within the European Union was estimated at 880,000 persons (European Union: Eurostat...

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