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Human Trafficking as a Quintessence of 21st Century Slavery

The Vulnerability of Nigerians in Austria

Chigozie DDr. Nnebedum

This book is a contribution towards a better understanding of the nature of the international crime of human trafficking. It is an impulse towards finding a new way at the international levels, and encouraging cooperation among nations in the fight against human trafficking and its root causes. The author analyzes human trafficking, which can be termed as «modern-day slavery» and in its complexity and dynamism ends up in the exploitation of the victims for the personal gains of a person or group of persons. A majority of the victims, especially women, end up in the sex industries. In most cases people are transported from the so-called underdeveloped to supposedly developed regions. As a result, women and girls are smuggled yearly from underdeveloped countries, for example Nigeria, to Europe and America.

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8 Conclusion


The crime of human trafficking involves a process. People are being recruited or abducted in the country of origin and transferred through transit countries to the destination countries for the purpose of either labour exploitation or sexual exploitation or both. However, human trafficking can occur within a single country. This is known as internal trafficking (Kangaspunta et al. 2008; UN.GIFT, overview p. 1). The traffickers take advantage of an individual’s vulnerability to recruit or abduct them. Factors that render the victims vulnerable to the traffickers are complex. Some of these factors relate to the conditions in the home countries of the victims; such as, poverty, gender inequality, political situation, illiteracy, unemployment. Some of the factors relate to the countries of transit or destination; such as, lack of legal status, state of being stranded, dependency, lack of language. At any stage, traffickers “can be involved in various functions as, for example, recruiters, transporters, or exploiters and various activities during different stages of the trafficking process, including forging documents, corruption and the withholding of their victims’ documents.” (Kangaspunta et al. 2008, p. 1). There is also a network of criminal groups who can be involved at different levels and stages of the whole trafficking process. There are also the beneficiaries of the crime and this includes the different businesses that utilize the services of the victims through labour exploitation and the men who patronize the brothels for the services of the trafficked women and girls.

Despite the fact...

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