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New Horizons in Philosophy and Sociology

Edited By Hülya Yaldir and Güncel Önkal

What is our responsibility as scholars in the Humanities and Social Sciences in the face of global issues threatening humanity today? This book provides a platform for an interdisciplinary, cross-cultural dialogue among philosophers and sociologists on the most pressing global issues facing humanity today. Combining the critical thinking of philosophy with sociological methods and researches, this volume offers fresh and stimulating perspectives with regard to various issues including environmental degradation, democracy, gender and economic inequalities, religion, war and peace.

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Rationality in Religion and Religious Beliefs

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1 Introduction

The meaning, philosophical structure and functions of religious traditions and beliefs are of the most important concerns of religious scholars, theologians and philosophers of religion. Their differences are in that how they think about religious traditions and beliefs. Hence, theology and philosophy of religion have witnessed plural theories regarding justifying religious beliefs and traditions. In this case, it is significant to pay attention to how religious beliefs and traditions accord to reason and rational principles, and how they act, and what is the result of their application. In addition, it is possible to assess internal coherency and reciprocal relations of religious beliefs and traditions. It should be noted, meanwhile, that most of theistic thinkers try to epistemologically justify them by using of philosophical methods and arguments, namely, they consider religious beliefs as a part of epistemic web so that it is possible to rationally justify them. Here, it is necessary to notice that the role of religious beliefs and traditions in forming worldview and functions of human’s religious and social life projects justifying of their philosophical rationality.

In this chapter, by considering the importance of religious beliefs and traditions in forming human’s worldview and theistic thinking, it is tried to find a rational method for their assessment. This method is called Philosophical Rationality of Religious Beliefs and Traditions that is based on this hypothesis that religious beliefs and traditions are epistemological and ontological system of beliefs, which consisted of fundamental, intermediate and...

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