Edited By Janina Falkowska and Krzysztof Loska
This book examines small cinemas and their presentation of society in times of crisis and conflict from an interdisciplinary and intercultural point of view. The authors concentrate on economic, social and political challenges and point to new phenomena which have been exposed by film directors. They present essays on, among others, Basque cinema; gendered controversies in post-communist small cinemas in Slovakia and Czech Republic; ethnic stereotypes in the works of Polish filmmakers; stereotypical representation of women in Japanese avant-garde; post-communist political myths in Hungary; the separatist movements of Catalonia; people in diasporas and during migrations. In view of these timely topics, the book touches on the most serious social and political problems. The films discussed provide an excellent platform for enhancing debates on politics, gender, migration and new aesthetics in cinema at departments of history, sociology, literature and film.
14. From controversy to contemplation: The thematic areas of the new Japanese avant-garde and experimental film in comparison to the “old masters” of Japanese avant-garde (Agnieszka Kiejziewicz)
Instytut Sztuk Audiowizualnych, Uniwersytet Jagielloński, Poland
Abstract: After the year 2000, the rapid development of the visual experimental and avant-garde art in Japan can be noticed. The new generation of the creators, who considers themselves as the founders of “the new avant-garde movement,” focuses on expanding the technological and thematic areas set by the independent artists from the 1970s and 1980s. Observing the unique works of the famous Collective Plus [+] and other recognizable filmmakers, the viewer can experience a wide range of themes, including the spiritual contemplation, ecological issues and problems with rapid urban development. However, among the works of the new generation of the avant-garde and experimental filmmakers, it is almost impossible to find the controversial subjects and controversies on the screen. Comparing the new experimental visual art to the topics and the ways of presentation used by the “old masters” of the Japanese avant-garde (such as Shuji Terayama, Takahiko Iimura or later Shinya Tsukamoto) it can be easily observed that the new generation avoids the subjects that might be considered to be controversial. Instead, they encourage the viewer to contemplate the beauty of the abstract, technologically advanced visions.
In this chapter, the author focuses on the comparison of the thematic areas of two generations of the Japanese independent artists, wondering why the new generation of the Japanese filmmakers avoids the controversial themes while stating that they follow the postulates of the old masters.
Keywords: Avant-garde, Japanese film, controversy, thematic areas, Takashi Makino, Kazuhiro Goshima, Shūji Terayama, experimental film, audiovisual experiment, Japan
The avant-garde film on Japanese ground emerged from the successful combination of the aesthetics of the New Wave cinema (jap. nūberu bāgu), the body transgressions of the “pink films” (jap. pinku eiga)1 and the eventful atmosphere of the 1960s. It was the time, when the Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security ← 195 | 196 → between the United States and Japan, known as ANPO, was signed by Japanese government on May 20, 1960. The ratification of the treaty led to the protests, uniting students, artists, workers and other groups within Japanese society2.
Writing about the first generation of the Japanese avant-garde artists, Isolde Standish mentions that: “A generational consciousness based on political opposition was intimately linked to the student movements of the 1950s and 1960s. Also, they shared experiences as Japan’s first generation of post-war filmmakers who were artistically stifled by a monopolistic and hierarchal commercial studio system […]”3. According to this observation, the artistic pursuits of the first avant-garde directors can be perceived as opposed to commercialism and classical Japanese cinema. The new counter-cinema also addressed a different audience: politically conscious and interested in novelty offered by perception-challenging visual forms4. Also, the visual aesthetics of surrealism, mostly known from the Western pictures of Buñuel and Cocteau5, inspired the Japanese avant-garde movement. Among the Japanese authors, working in the 1960s and 1970s, who had a significant influence on the shape of the further audiovisual experiments, there should be mentioned Shūji Terayama and Jūrō Kara6. They mainly focused on the theme of body transgressions, searching for new ways of establishing contact with the viewers and encouraging them to reconsider the social and political reality.
Between the 1970s and 1980s, besides the continuous development of the avant-garde forms, the experimental branch of audiovisual forms appeared on the Japanese ground. The most prominent artists of that time, Toshio Matsumoto and Takahiko Iimura, brought fresh insight into the world of a creative usage of the film techniques. At the other end of the scale should also be mentioned Ichiro Sueoka and Mako Idemitsu, female artists, who underlined the problems of the “second gender” in the Japanese society and undertook the polemics with the “male culture.” The middle and late 1980s brought to life an innovative hybrid of the newest technologies and avant-garde aesthetics – “technological avant-garde.” ← 196 | 197 → The representatives of that current revolved around technophobia and through the futuristic visions of the cyber, metal bodies, strived to depict threats and hopes of the computer era.
Japanese avant-garde cyberpunk as a film genre emerged from the aesthetics of the New Wave transgressions, Japanese and Western Science Fiction and the experiments of the previous independent authors. Filmmakers such as Tsukamoto or Izumiya tried to show on the screen the alternative visions of the future, in which the fusion of technology and humans’ curiosity will bring to life a new kind of monster – superhuman. Among the best known independent “cyberpunks,” Shinya Tsukamoto7, Sōgo Ishii8, Shōjin Fukui9 and Shigeru Izumiya10 should be mentioned. While the first one is widely known as the “father of the Japanese cyberpunk,” Sōgo Ishii is recognized as the author of films such as Burst City (Bakuretsu toshi, 1982) and Crazy Thunder Road (Kuruizaki sandā rōdo, 1980). He is also considered to be the precursor of the avant-garde cyberpunk genre on Japanese ground. What is more, mentioned above Shozin Fukui directed cyberpunk films such as 964 Pinocchio (1991) and Rubber’s Lover (1996). Another pre-cyberpunk director, Shigeru Izumiya, was the author of Death Powder (Desu pawuda, 1986), in which he presented the first android in Japanese cyberpunk-independent cinema. However, after the popularity boom of the multiplex cinemas in Japan in the 1990s11, the interest in avant-garde and experimental forms of expression faded away, both among the artists and the publicists. Even though during that period Mako Idemitsu and Takahiko Iimura released some of their less-known works, the overall shape of the Japanese cinema was far from the experimental techniques and topics related to the interests of the avant-garde artists. In that case, the period between 1990 and 2000 can be perceived as a gap between old avant-garde forms and a new dynamic movement. ← 197 | 198 →
The rapid development of the visual experiment and avant-garde art in Japan after the year 2000 brings many questions on how are the objectives of the new movement, as well as how the young artists, relate their achievements to those presented by the previous generations. It should be underlined that the founders of “the new avant-garde movement” admit to being inspired by the works of other independent artists, but, at the same time, they try to expand the technological and thematic areas set by the golden age of Japanese avant-garde. In this chapter, I will focus on the thematic areas of the new movement to show the variety of themes they cover. Analyzing the works of a highly active group Collective Plus [+]12, an independent group of young filmmakers set up by Takashi Makino, Rei Hayama and Shinkan Tamaki and other recognizable filmmakers, such as Kazuhiro Goshima13 and Tomonari Nishikawa14, I would like to consider the problem of discarding the controversial themes for the spiritual explorations.
It can be observed that the new generation of avant-garde and experimental filmmakers avoids the controversial subjects and even the metaphorical representations of the controversies on the screen. Comparing their visual art to the themes and the ways of presentation used by the “masters” of the Japanese avant-garde, it can be pointed out that the new generation avoids the body transgressions and the subjects that might be classified as controversial, improper or politically incorrect. Instead of trying to shock the viewer, young artists focus on the problems of urbanization, pay considerable attention to coexistence with nature, as well as to the threats and drawbacks of implementing new technologies into the everyday life. The new avant-garde filmmakers also strive to develop their understanding of the newest technological tools that allows them to express the figments of their imaginations adequately on the screen15. Here, the problem of the medium and artistic pursuits also becomes the issue presented in the films. ← 198 | 199 →
Considering the fact that the young artists at the same time focus on being politically correct and state that they follow (and even improve) the postulates of the “old masters”16, intangibly related to the controversial topics, I will compare the chosen thematic areas with the reasons for the paradigm shift among the young artists. Providing the examples of the films from different cinematic epochs, I will show that the new Japanese avant-garde follows only the visual aesthetics and techniques introduced by the “old masters,” leaving behind their postulates.
New generation, new objectives
The artists working under the label of the new Japanese avant-garde are mostly the graduates of audiovisual studies, who not only pursue their dreams of the new audiovisual experience but also hold a formal education in their fields17. They continuously extend their knowledge of the available technologies, what became the identification point of the new generation of the filmmakers. In their postulates, the young filmmakers state that it is important to offer the viewer the best possible quality of the experience. The significant feature of the mentioned Japanese artists is their presence on the Internet and the attention they pay to maintain the close contact with fans. The filmmakers not only post about their newest achievements on their websites and social media profiles, allowing the viewers to comment on their art, but also care to be present at screenings and visit festivals. Thanks to the contact with fans they can respond quickly to the feedback and expectations, which means that their art is constantly a matter of alterations and changes. The young experimenters postulate that improving the form and searching for the perfect image of their projects is one of the most important goals of their generation. What is more, the Internet is eagerly being used by the artists to successfully promote their works to reach the potential donors. It is worth mentioning that the new generation of artists communicates with their fans through the Internet; for example, Takashi Makino and Shinkan Tamaki have their Facebook profiles open for commentaries.
It is not easy to bring together all the postulates of the new generation of avant-garde Japanese artists, as they did not openly publish their manifestos. Unlike ← 199 | 200 → Shūji Terayama18, who in 1975 published his collected objectives or Iimura19, the young artists prefer to reveal their point of view little by little, publishing important thoughts on the websites or mentioning them during the interviews. However, one exception can be a booklet released by Collective Plus [+], in which the artists featured brief descriptions of their recent works, the interviews, impressions and commentaries20. Nevertheless, the representatives of the Collective Plus [+] stated their aims during the 5th edition of the festival Mostra de Cinema Periférico in Spain21. They called themselves a “new avant-garde,” considering their pictures as a continuation of the achievements of previous generations of Japanese experimental artists. They also mentioned that besides offering new experiences to the viewers, they want to show how the new technologies can be incorporated into the world of art. According to this, the artists hope for extending the widespread knowledge of the cinema-related technologies, which can be beneficial to the viewers in terms of film education. They declare that the main point of their activity is to rescue the Japanese cinema from “the mediocre plots of the popular movies.” On the Collective’s blog (part of Makino’s website), the artists state that: “The main aim of + is to vitalize the art of the essential cinema, made regardless of any existing boundaries, in contrast to blockbusters. […] + is no longer just a screening project. This is a movement by several different individuals such as filmmakers, musicians, artists and critics. This is a flexible community of those who resonant each other in the moment”22.
Analyzing the presented statements, it can be observed that the young generation perceives the role of the avant-garde movement through its educative purposes. The quality of the screening they want to offer should, according to them, fill out the gap between popular cinema and the need for a meaningful audiovisual experience. Following the working style of famous avant-garde directors, such as Terayama23, some representatives of the new generation postulate that forming the groups and collectives is inevitable to obtain a free flow of ideas. Among the postulates and goals the young artists wish to carry out, there should be mentioned the idea of presenting an entirely different face of Japanese cinema abroad. ← 200 | 201 → The artists want to break the stereotypical view of Japanese cinema through the prism of jidai geki24 and kaijū25 films and bring attention to the unknown aesthetic currents. It should be underlined that every experimental artist also has his own postulates, mainly connected to the leading theme of his or her works. However, the mentioned goals, such as the promotion of art, creating the new quality of cinema and personal development, also reappear in the statements of the young artists.
Comparing the aims of the new experimental artists to the activities performed by the “old masters,” it can be perceived that the actions designed to shock the society and create controversy during the 1960s and later evolved into promotional mechanisms and strategies. For example, the meaning of the artistic collective has changed. The groups of the first Japanese avant-garde artists occupied the city space camping in huge, colorful tents in parks and invaded the streets in noisy processions26, trying to manifest their independence, distinctiveness and unity inside the collective. Nowadays, the young artists do not undertake such visible actions, limiting their appearance to screenings held by galleries, local cinemas and universities, therefore being invisible for the wider audience. Also, the contact with fans, obtained through the Internet and personal meetings, lacks the wild mood introduced by Terayama, who could even harass the viewer during the performance to make him “feel” the art27.
Controversial themes of the “old masters”
The Japanese avant-garde movement, concentrated on the antiestablishment manifestations, did not avoid highly controversial issues. The primary purpose of the artists working then was to shock the viewers, to make them reconsider the reality, cultural norms, the history and the political issues of that time.
Often the avant-garde artists created a caricature, grotesque and unreal picture of the Japanese society to underline the current problems that needed reconsideration. For example, the anti-utopian, terrifying and cruel world was presented ← 201 | 202 → in Terayama’s film Emperor Tomato Ketchup (Tomato Kecchappu Kōtei, 1971)28. Here, the director depicts the state ruled by the rebellious children, who hunt for the adults to imprison or even eliminate them29. The deepest controversy of the film lay in the presentation of the children’s sexual intercourses with the enslaved adults, and that is why the picture was the object of Japanese and Western censorship30. However, explicit violence and atrocities are used by Terayama as the symbols of the dawn of the societal order in postwar Japan.
The critique of the changes in the Japanese society in the works of the avant-garde artists often appeared together with body transgressions. Here can be mentioned the films that show the metamorphosis of the body, stepping out the limits of the flesh (strength, power, abilities, adaptation) and that covers the topic of transgression from one form of the corporal state to another. Shinya Tsukamoto presented the horrifying fusion of the flesh and metal that resulted in creating the superior human being in his Tetsuo: The Iron Man (1989)31. The controversial transgression, obscure and shocking, can also be found in the films of other “cyberpunks,” as mentioned, before Shōjin Fukui or Shigeru Izumiya. Moreover, the body, as well as sexuality themes, appeared in experimental, short productions. Here, the particular attention should be devoted to Love (Ai, 1962) by Takahiko Iimura. His incredibly sensual and intimate picture presents, in a huge close-up, the sexual intercourse of an undefined couple. The bodies appear on the screen as white smudges, intersected by the black shadows of the body contours, making it almost impossible to recognize the limbs at the first glimpse. Iimura’s picture brings to mind the film of an American artist Barbara Hammer, who also presented the love act in the same aesthetics in her Dyketactics (1974)32. The theme of sexuality also came back as the narrations about the sexual minorities, such as in a famous Funeral Parade of Roses (Bara no sōretsu, 1969) by Toshio Matsumoto33.
Another important and controversial theme, regarding the traditional gender roles in Japanese society, was the case of femininity and social control. Except ← 202 | 203 → Yoko Ono34, widely recognized among the Western audience, it is also worth mentioning Mako Idemitsu35. In her works, Idemitsu focused on the meaning of the role of a mother in Japan (ex. series Great Mother, 1983–1984), the situation of the housebound housewives (ex. Kiyoko’s Situation, 1989) and, what she calls, “social control” over the women’s and girl’s minds by providing them with constant examples of the ideal behavior, accepted by the society (Inner Man, 1972).
The artists of the first generation of the Japanese avant-garde did not restrain themselves only to the categories presented above. However, the controversy, critique of the norms, attempts to cross the boundaries of the traditional aesthetics were the important parts of their pictures, as well as the main points of their artistic programs. It can be summarized that the controversy defined the existence of the Japanese avant-garde, as the movement emerged on the wave of the critique of social norms.
Thematic areas of the new avant-garde filmmakers
The thematic areas of the new avant-garde filmmakers can be divided into two categories. The first one contains the works of the directors who are mainly interested in developing their technological skills to be able to create more advanced and visually astounding contemplation films. Their projects often revolve around abstract, quickly changing frames and surreal aesthetics, not introducing the theme directly. The visual art they present is often metaphysical and symbolic, covering topics such as the meaning of existence and human’s place in the cosmic order.
One of the most notable artists, concentrated on the abstract ideas, is Takashi Makino36, the founder and member of the Collective Plus [+]. Combining 3D techniques with the original usage of the Pulfrich effect37, he shows the visions of cosmos, generated by computer processing of the images. Among Makino’s films depicting the whirling supernovas, the most popular (and most often screened) ← 203 | 204 → are Phantom Nebula (2014) and Still in Cosmos (2009). The illusion of depth he creates, based on the difference in timing of the signal, is recognized by the eyes of the audience38. As the artist states, he wants to encourage the viewers to open up for new experiences and search for an absolute through the contemplation of the abstract images39. To his account, Makino also has a film that resembles a visual diary. In 2012 (2013) Makino shows what he observed and felt during the year 2012, after the Fukushima disaster. As he indicated in the interview conducted by Julian Ross, in the film 2012 the artist wanted to show the atmosphere of the year, during which the fear of the radioactivity after the Fukushima disaster dominated the media discourse in Japan40. However, 2012 does not present the critique of the government or even the catastrophe as a political issue. The author concentrates on the mood and national grief, avoiding the controversy or direct comments on the situation. Makino felt that by preparing the film related to the catastrophe, he will have an opportunity to capture the spirit of the nation at that time41. Another artist, who focuses on showing abstract pictures of familiar, everyday objects and people, is Shinkan Tamaki42. The director uses the symbolism to undertake a game with the viewer’s perception, what can be observed in his films Dying Moon (2005) or One Record on December (2007). However, the contemplation of the shapes and textures, unrecognizable for the first glimpse, does not offer the space for controversy, transgression or political critique.
The second thematic area appearing in the works of the new Japanese avant-garde and experimental artists is the role of nature in humans’ lives and the peaceful coexistence of all living creatures. The directors also raise the issue of the people alienated in a modern metropolis, unable to find their way back to the joyful land of ecological utopia from the pre-industrial times. In this case, nature becomes the metaphor of the freedom, lost by the inhabitant of the sterile cities. The importance of the contact with nature became the primary interest of Rei Hayama43, also the member of Collective Plus [+]. Her films became the reflections of what is significant for the author, as she spent her childhood living with ← 204 | 205 → her parents in the forest hut44. Hayama recreates on the screen the memories of the innocent children’s plays in the natural environment, which can be observed, for example, in A Child Goes Burying Dead Insects (2009). She also focuses on the beauty of nature itself and compares the industrial environment with the evergreen settings (ex. Emblem, 2012).
The problem of being lost in an urban environment again appears in the works of Kazuhiro Goshima45 and Tomonari Nishikawa46, who emphasize the overwhelming atmosphere of the detail-planned spaces of the metropolis. They also portray artificial environment as an organism powered by the infinite, mysterious energy. The cities in Goshima’s and Nishikawa’s films are accelerated by the shadows or the movements of the inhabitants. The uncanny atmosphere of the modern cities is connected to the discourse about the catastrophe of the humanity, caused by the excessive usage of the atomic power and rapid technological development. Goshima’s empty and silent urban spaces bring to mind, deprived of the inhabitants, postapocalyptic areas (such as in Different Cities, 2006). The problem of nuclear power also appears in Tomonari Nishikawa’s picture Sound of a Million Insects, Light of a Thousand Stars (2014). In this film, the author openly criticizes the Japanese government for stating that the terrain around the reactors was completely safe and encouraging the former inhabitants to come back to their premises. The controversy of Nishikawa’s picture lies in the technology he adopted – the artist buried the film tape under the fallen leaves on the previously contaminated area and left it there for the nighttime. Later on, the author retrieved it with the help of the American technicians and processed (the contaminated) tape in the studio, showing the effects that the radioactive waste in the soil had on the material. Nishikawa describes the process of preparing Sound… on his website: “I buried a 100-foot 35mm film negative film under fallen leaves alongside a country road, which was about 15 miles away from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, for one night in June 2014. The film was exposed to the possible remaining of the radioactive materials”47.
As it can be observed on the presented examples of the best known new Japanese avant-garde films, it is hard to find many controversial themes among the works of the young generation of the artists. They mostly focus on the spiritual ← 205 | 206 → and contemplative mood, not forcing the viewer to change his perception, but gently encouraging him to reconsider the chosen problem. Moreover, the directors seem to be more interested in focusing on global issues and universal themes as urbanization, the opposition of nature versus industrialization and personal development. They also completely abandoned the discourse of the body transgressions, which was the most controversial theme of the first Japanese avant-garde film.
Conclusion: Who needs controversy today?
As Polish researcher Krystyna Wilkoszewska observes, the avant-garde can be perceived both as an anarchist movement aiming at overthrowing the existing artistic standards and as the formal experiment – the act of inventing new aesthetics48, different from the traditional art. According to the presented statement, it can be admitted that the new generation continues the postulates of the first Japanese avant-garde movement only if the new movement is perceived as the form of new aesthetics. However, taking into consideration all postulates of two generations of the filmmakers and comparing the most popular themes adopted by them, it has to be admitted that the young artists do not fully follow the path introduced by the “old masters.”
Besides the noticeable rejection of the controversial themes by the new avant-garde, there are significant differences in understanding the contact with the audience. Also, the ways of distribution of the ideas and ready products (recordings, posters, results) has changed, resembling the strategies of the mainstream cinema. Moreover, it can also be noted that working inside the collectives differentiates from the practices of the “old masters.” Nowadays, the groups focus on a collaborative collection of funds and focus mostly on economic aspects of this cooperation. However, as Takashi Makino admits, sharing ideas also plays a major role in the collective work.
Summing up, the young generation of the Japanese avant-garde directors continues the postulates of the “old masters” only on the ground of the aesthetic experiments with the “form.” The controversy that played an important part in the art of the previous generation is no longer needed in the new independent, experimental films, as the objectives and themes have changed. The meditation and slow, thorough contemplation of the social problems became the most important and recurring theme of the new avant-garde. Instead of trying to alter ← 206 | 207 → the viewer’s point of view by shocking him, the artists offer the audience some relief, a peaceful rest from everyday noise and mainstream films that focus on the attraction, shock and transgressions.
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1 See: Jasper Sharp, Behind the Pink Curtain. The Complete History of Japanese Sex Cinema (Godalming: FAB Press, 2008).
2 Wesley M. Sasaki-Uemura, Organizing the Spontaneous: Citizens Protest in Postwar Japan (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2001), pp. 24–49.
3 Isolde Standish, Politics, Porn and Protest. Japanese Avant-Garde Cinema in the 1960s and 1970s (New York and London: Continuum, 2001), p. 1.
4 See: Standish, Politics, p. 1–10.
5 See: Mark Schilling, “Japanising the Dark Side: Surrealism in Japanese Film,” in: The Unsilvered Screen: Surrealism on Film, eds. Graeme Harper and Rob Stone (London, New York: Wallflower Press, 2007), pp. 134–142.
6 Several studies and publications describe the films, performances and life of Shūji Terayama. See: Standish, Sorgenfrei.
7 See: Tom Mes, Iron Man. The Cinema of Shinya Tsukamoto (Godalming: FAB Press, 2005). The author provides the complete analysis of Tsukamoto’s early films and biographical facts that influenced his art.
8 See: Tom Mes and Jasper Sharp, The Midnight Eye Guide to New Japanese Film (Berkeley: Stone Bridge Press, 2005), pp. 67–69.
9 See: Mes, Sharp, The Midnight Eye, p. 226.
10 See: Graham Lewis, “Pinnochio 964, Death Powder and The Post − Human Condition,” in: Japanese Horror Cinema, ed. Jay McRoy, (Edinburg: Edinburg University Press, 2005).
11 To observe the influence of the increasing number of multiplex cinemas on the number and popularity of imported, popular films, see: “Statistics of Film Industry in Japan,” Motion Pictures Producers Association of Japan, Inc., 1 Jan. 2017, http://www.eiren.org/statistics_e/.
12 More about the group can be found in their publication: Plus Documents 2009–2013, ed. Takashi Makino (Indianapolis: Engine Books, 2014).
15 Agnieszka Kiejziewicz, “The technologies of experimental Japanese filmmakers in the digital era,” Transmissions: The Journal of Film and Media Studies, Vol.1, No. 1 (2016), pp. 99–114.
17 For example, Kazuhiro Goshima graduated from Kyoto Institute of Technology.
18 Terayama presented his postulates in the manifesto, see: Shuji Terayama, “Manifesto,” The Drama Review, Vol.19, No. 4 (1975), pp. 84–85.
19 Iimura described his main objectives in his publication, see: Takahiko Iimura, The Collected Writings of Takahiko Iimura (Maryland: Wildside Press LLC, 2007).
20 See: Plus Documents, 2014.
21 Takashi Makino, Rei Hayama, Shinkan Tamaki, “Mostra de Cinema Periferico.”
23 To read more about Terayama’s working style, see: Standish or Sorgenfrei.
24 Jidai geki is a Japanese film and TV series genre of historical dramas, mostly set in Edo period (1603–1868) of Japanese history.
25 Kaijū eiga is a film (TV, books, manga and games) genre characterized by the appearance of the variety of monsters (for example Godzilla by Ishiro Honda).
26 To read more about Terayama’s performance, see Stanca Scholz-Cionca, Japanese Theatre and the International Stage (Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2001), pp. 255–258.
27 Stanca Scholz-Cionca, Japanese Theatre.
28 Frank Jacob, “Emperor Tomato Ketchup: The Child as the Dictator of Mankind,” in: The Child in Post-Apocaliptic Cinema, ed. by Debbie Olson (Lanham: Lexington Books, 2015), p. 161.
29 See: Frank, “Emperor Tomato Ketchup,” p. 161.
30 After the reaction of the censorship bureau, Terayama’ film was shortened from the 85 minutes of the original material to 28 minutes’ version screened in Europe.
31 Mes, Iron Man, pp. 49–67.
32 Dykatactic. Barbara Hammer, USA, 1974.
33 Michael Raine, “Introduction to Matsumoto Toshio: A Theory of Avant-Garde Documentary,” Cinema Journal, Vol. 51, No. 4 (2012), pp. 144–147.
34 More about the works and life of Yoko Ono can be found in the publication: Hans U. Obrist, Yoko Ono (New York: Distributed Art Pub Incorporated, 2009).
35 The complete list of Idemitu’s films, together with short descriptions, can be found on artist’s website: Mako Idemitsu, Mako Idemitsu – Media Artist, (2016): 15 Jan 2017, http://makoidemitsu.com/work-archive/?lang=en.
36 See: Takashi Makino, Makino Takashi.
37 Takashi Makino described how he used the Pulfrich effect in his film in the interview for Los Angeles Film Forum. See: “Takashi Makino: Entering a Noisy Cosmos”, Los Angeles Film Forum: 30 Mar. 2016, http://www.lafilmforum.org/archive/fall-2014-schedule/makino-takashi-entering-a-noisy-cosmos/.
38 See: Kiejziewicz, “The technologies,” p. 105.
39 “Takashi Makino: Entering a Noisy Cosmos.”
40 Julian Ross, “Interview: Takashi Makino,” Filmcomment, Vol. 3, (Oct 2014): 15 Jan. 2016, http://www.filmcomment.com/blog/interview-takashi-makino/.
45 See: Kazuhiro Goshima, Kazuhiro Goshima.
46 See: Tomonari Nishikawa, Tomonari Nishikawa.
47 Tomonari Nishikawa, Tomonari Nishikawa.
48 Wiek awangardy [The Age of Avant-Garde], ed. Liliana Bieszczad (Kraków: Universitas, 2006), p. 9.