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Key Components of Inclusive Education

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Edited By Viktor Lechta and Nad'a Bizová

This monograph links to the monograph "Reflection of Inclusive Education of the 21st Century in Correlative Scientific Fields" (Lechta. V. - Kudláčová, B., Frankfurt: Peter Lang 2013). It should be a summary of the most relevant components of inclusive education and proposals for further development. The co-authors are influential representatives of inclusive education from Slovakia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Germany. Structure of authors present their findings from the aspect of pedagogy, psychology, special education, therapeutic education, social pedagogy, history, philosophy, psychology, law, medicine in this field in its transdisciplinary correlation. The monograph is intended mainly for the experts from all the disciplines that participate in the care of people with disabilities, as well as students and parents that are interested in it.

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Philosophical Component

2. Philosophical Component

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Andrej Rajský



The aim of this chapter is to look into the philosophical context of inclusion and especially of its applicative area – inclusive education; and to summarize the fundamental principles that allow us not only to better understand the ontological and social status of people with disabilities, but also to orient our behaviour (particularly educational conduct) with a deeper inclusive purpose. Basal anthropological thesis that this chapter is based on, is the belief of the fundamental equality of all people regardless of their biological determination, cultural and social circumstances of their existence. From this fundamental equality, which refers to common human identity (from Greek anthropou physis, Latin natura humana = humanitas) arises inalienable value and dignity of a human person, that goes beyond any given singularities, whether they are perceived as special skills, or as physical ones, but ultimately always the cultural limitations (compare Rajský 2011, pp. 39–41, Rajský in Lechta (ed.), 2016, pp. 64–76). The concept of human nature, resp. in a broader sense the status of humanity, is presented as a guarantee of universal human equality and the resulting design criteria of social relationships. On this anthropological thesis – and in a sense also dialectically against it – there is further constructed ethics of relationships and dialogue that respects every difference and uniqueness, but especially appeals to interpersonal solidarity and reciprocal responsibility. Personal diversity is not the reason to reject the thesis of universal continuity of inherently human quality, on the contrary, this ontological anchor...

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