Planning, Design, Applications
Edited By Murat Özyavuz
One of the main objectives of planning and design is the reflection of the works to the space. Therefore, the starting point of this book is to reveal the research conducted by different professions in the field of spatial planning and design. For this purpose, original researches on direct application and land were included. Planning and design studies need co-operation between professions in order to fulfill this philosophy. These activities are effective means of fulfilling the philosophy of sustainability. Planning and design is a tool to tell the story of a community, and how it’s past, present and future work together for a sustainable tomorrow. The design process in which the most appropriate spatial compositions are revealed by shaping the areas in the direction of planning decisions, develops in the continuation of the planning process. This book is for landscape architects and other planning and design professions. Theoretical foundations, theories, methods, and applications will be essential parts of this reference book. In addition, this book addresses several very different subjects of study; landscape management, biodiversity, landscape restoration, landscape design, urban design, urban planning and architectural design related to theory, practice and the results will be covered.
13 A Sustainable and Integrated Framework for Local Governments: Smart City
Abstract: Urban areas, which cover only 2% of the world’s surface and which are the most important regions where people live, produce 80% of the greenhouse gas emissions and consume 75% of the natural resources in the world, and these rates are increasing in parallel with the urbanization rate of population. For this reason, various planning and urban concepts/approaches have been developed in recent years, which include the efforts to make urban resources more efficient and economical, and to make cities more livable such as sustainable cities, ecological cities, green cities, slow cities, low carbon cities. Though they have different names, what these approaches have in common is to create awareness of different ecosystems and to plan sustainable cities that consume low energy and water, preserve natural ecosystems, and thus ensure sustainable development. These approaches, which have developed with the increasing awareness of environmental consciousness and climate change, are dealt together with the developments in information and communication technologies in the 21st century; and, they entail the emergence of the concept of “Smart Cities” which bring great innovations and conveniences to local governments in many areas such as transportation, communication, health, safety, energy efficiency, water use and waste management. This chapter defines the concept of smart city; provides information about its components; and examines its role in achieving the sustainability targets of local governments.
Keywords: Smart city, Sustainability, Sustainable local government, Targets of smart city, Component of smart city
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