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Erinnerung aus zweiter Hand

Die born-free Generation in Südafrika und ihre Interpretation der Apartheid und des demokratischen Übergangs

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Julia Sonnleitner

Nach den ersten demokratischen Wahlen in Südafrika 1994 ist eine Generation herangewachsen, welche die Apartheid nicht mehr miterlebt hat. Sie ist in einem demokratischen Staat aufgewachsen, in dem die Apartheid dennoch in vielen Bereichen nachwirkt. Basierend auf ethnografischer Forschung legt die Autorin dar, wie VertreterInnen der born-free Generation die Vergangenheit ihres Landes interpretieren. Durch zwei neue Ansätze leistet die Untersuchung einen innovativen Beitrag zur Erinnerungsforschung: erstens durch den rezeptions-zentrierten Zugang, der soziale Positionierungen der befragten Jugendlichen in den Mittelpunkt stellt. Zweitens durch das Konzept des Chronotopos, mit dem die Relevanz von Zeit, Raum und Subjekt in der Analyse von Vergangenheitsdarstellungen berücksichtigt wird.

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4. Die Vergangenheit und ihre Repräsentation

4. Die Vergangenheit und ihre Repräsentation

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Abstract: Social memory studies has developed into a broad academic field and in this chapter, several strands of it are discussed. First, I outline the development in anthropological thought that enabled the study of social change as a result of progressing theoretical paradigms. In particular, I demonstrate how Edmund Leach’s work contributed to studying the object of historical processes, also as a project set out to write against structuralism. Secondly, Maurice Halbwachs’ seminal work on collective memory is discussed as a concept which links autobiographic memory to the collective in that it perceives memory as something that always emerges out of intersubjective, one could say dialogic, interaction. In contrast to concepts of collective memory that simply assume a social entity to remember in a certain way, a body of work shows that memory is highly antagonistic and that different versions of history are present in different segments of society. Approaches that are sensitive to these frictions are discussed: these are ethnographically grounded and pay attention to the linguistic, mediated, embodied and emplaced properties of memory. Inline with this perspective, the question of authorisation is addressed: how, that is, in which register, genre, and with which intertextual references a message must be brought forward in order to count as historical account. Discourse linguistics draws our attention to the situatedness of social memory as it is both retrospective as well as prospective and a gesture of projecting oneself, as an act of alignment, onto historical times and thus establishing continuity or discontinuity...

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