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Erinnerung aus zweiter Hand

Die born-free Generation in Südafrika und ihre Interpretation der Apartheid und des demokratischen Übergangs

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Julia Sonnleitner

Nach den ersten demokratischen Wahlen in Südafrika 1994 ist eine Generation herangewachsen, welche die Apartheid nicht mehr miterlebt hat. Sie ist in einem demokratischen Staat aufgewachsen, in dem die Apartheid dennoch in vielen Bereichen nachwirkt. Basierend auf ethnografischer Forschung legt die Autorin dar, wie VertreterInnen der born-free Generation die Vergangenheit ihres Landes interpretieren. Durch zwei neue Ansätze leistet die Untersuchung einen innovativen Beitrag zur Erinnerungsforschung: erstens durch den rezeptions-zentrierten Zugang, der soziale Positionierungen der befragten Jugendlichen in den Mittelpunkt stellt. Zweitens durch das Konzept des Chronotopos, mit dem die Relevanz von Zeit, Raum und Subjekt in der Analyse von Vergangenheitsdarstellungen berücksichtigt wird.

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9. Positionierungen zu geschichtlichen Quellen – die Bewertung von Wissen

9. Positionierungen zu geschichtlichen Quellen – die Bewertung von Wissen

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Abstract: This chapter draws on the discussion of stance in discourse and the metapragmatic model of positioning by Jürgen Spitzmüller in order to analyse how the interview partners position themselves in relation to transmitted memory. As becomes evident in this chapter, interview partners wish to distance or align themselves with certain discourses of the past. Employing a metapragmatic model of analysis reveals that they do so by weaving voices of the older generation into their accounts – in terms of double-voicing – and evaluate other discourse positions by way of stylisation. Several interview segments illustrate the alignment with or distancing from standpoints of the older generations such as the topos of not-knowing or transmitted memory as a mission for the younger generation. Secondly, processes of authorisation and authentification of sources of knowledge are presented, such as the evaluation of parents’ accounts of the past as authentic sources or as a biased perspective in need of correction by the younger generation who are taught a “more objective knowledge” at school. Furthermore, affective orientations towards historical knowledge are discussed: some interview partners actively search for knowledge about the past – or interpret it as a moral imperative to do so – whereas others express discomfort or disinterest when learning about the past. As these findings show, orientations towards transmitted knowledge are a crucial aspect in how representatives of the born-free generation interpret the past.

Keywords: metapragmatic positioning, alignment, distancing, ambivalence, authorisation and authentification, sources of knowedge, affective orientations

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