A Cross-Cultural Survey
Edited By Duraid Jalili and Hubert Annen
This book brings together non-Western viewpoints on military pedagogy and professional military education (PME). In doing so, it seeks to provide a counterbalance to the predominantly European and North American bias found within the research field, as well as generating new insights on Latin American, African and Asian pedagogical commentaries and critiques. The collection contains essays from PME researchers and practitioners across fourteen countries, on subjects including large-scale educational reform, civil-military and academic influences on military pedagogy, internationalisation, cross-cultural collaboration, and interoperability within military education.
Colonel Hubert Annen, Ph.D., is the head of Military Psychology and Military Pedagogy Studies at the Swiss Military Academy at ETH Zurich and the head of the Swiss Army assessment centres for prospective Defence Attachés, General Staff Officers, and Professional Officers and NCOs respectively. He had assignments as visiting scholar at the University of South Florida and as visiting professor at the U.S. Military Academy at West Point. His research interests include the evaluation and validation of assessment and selection procedures for military leaders, motivational aspects in the military context, military education, military values and virtues, and the trainability and measurability of individual resilience. Dr. Annen is also the head of the Management Board of the International Military Testing Association (IMTA).
Professor Silvia Cristina Bernava y Rosas currently works as Associate Professor of International Public Law and International Law for Armed Conflict, at the Colegio Militar de la Nación, Argentina. Her career as a military educator has included senior lectureship roles at the Escuela Superior de Guerra and the Instituto Universitario de la Policía Federal Argentina. She has also taught in the civilian HE sector at the Pontificia Universidad Católica Argentina Santa María de los Buenos Aires, the Universidad de Buenos Aires and the Universidad de Palermo. Professor Bernava holds postgraduate degrees in the International Law of Armed Conflict as well as Aeronautical and Space Law, from the Instituto Nacional de Derecho Aeronáutico y Espacial.
Ambassador Brigadier General (Ret.) Marcel R.D. Chirwa currently works as Executive Secretary of the African Peace Support Trainers Association (APSTA), based in Nairobi. APSTA is composed of 16 Training Centres in Africa and provides support to the African Union Peace and Security Directorate. Prior to this role, he served for over 20 years in the Malawi Defence Force, followed by roles as Senior Research Fellow at the Institute for Security Studies (ISS) and Deputy High Commissioner for the Malawi Embassy in Kenya. Ambassador Chirwa holds an MSc in Strategic Management, Diploma in Defence Management, Certificate Course in ←225 | 226→National Security, Certificate in Political Warfare and is a graduate of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College.
Dr. Diego Pérez Enríquez is a lecturer in the Centre for Security and Defense at the Instituto de Altos Estudios Nacionales (IAEN). He lectures on subjects including democracy and institutionality, civil-military relations and international relations. He has also previously held the roles of Dean of the IAEN’s School of Security and Strategic Studies, and the School of International Politics and Security respectively. In addition to his work at the IAEN, Dr. Pérez has served as Academic Director of the Legislative School of the Asamblea Nacional del Ecuador. He holds a PhD in Political Science from the Universidad de Belgrano. His doctoral thesis focussed on political leadership and institutional transformation in Ecuador.
Milton Reyes Herrera is a lecturer and researcher at the Instituto de Altos Estudios Nacionales (IAEN) in Ecuador, and professor of the School of Sociology at PUCE. Prior to this, he worked as Coordinator of the Asia Pacific and China Studies Program and Dean of the IAEN’s School of Security and Strategic Studies. Mr. Reyes is a member of the Academic Council of the International Symposium of the Iberoamerican Network of Sinology (SIRIS), the Asia Pacific Observatory of Asociación Latinoamericana de Integración (ALADI), the International Confucian Association, and the Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales (FLACSO). He holds an MSc in Latin American Studies from the Universidad Andina Simón Bolívar and is a PhD candidate in International Political Economy at the Universidad Federal de Rio de Janeiro.
Colonel Dr. Eri Radityawara Hidayat has served for many years in the Psychological Service of the Indonesian Army and currently lectures at the Peace and Conflict Resolution Study Program of the Indonesian Defence University. He received his Doctorate in Psychology from the University of Indonesia, during which time he became a Fulbright scholar at Columbia University. He possesses an MSc in Human Resource Management and Coaching Psychology from the University of Sydney, an MBA from the University of Pittsburgh, and a BSc from the University of Wisconsin. A graduate of the Indonesian Defence Forces Officer’s School, Colonel Hidayat has attended the Indonesian Army Command and Staff School and ←226 | 227→the Netherlands Defence Course. During the 2015 International Military Testing Association conference in Stockholm, Colonel Hidayat received the Harry Greer award for his contribution to military psychology.
Ho Shu Huang is an Associate Research Fellow with the Military Studies Programme at the S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies (RSIS), Nanyang Technological University. He has a BA (Hons) degree in History from the National University of Singapore, as well as an MSc in Strategic Studies from RSIS. He is concurrently pursuing a PhD with the Defence Studies Department at King’s College London. Prior to joining the RSIS, Shu Huang worked for the Singapore Armed Forces (SAF) to set up the Army Museum of Singapore. His affiliation with the SAF continues to this day in the realm of professional military education.
Major General (Ret.) Muhammad Inuwa Idris served in a wide range of roles during his 35-year career in the Nigerian Armed Forces, including as the 26th Commandant of the Nigerian Defence Academy; Deputy Commandant and Director of Studies of the National Defence College; Commandant of the Army Intelligence School (NAIS); Chief of Staff of the Army Intelligence Corps; and Commander of the Strategic Intelligence Support Group. Major General Idris holds an MSc in National Security Strategy from the U.S. National War College, an MA in Strategic Security Studies from the College of International Security Affairs, and a BA in War Studies from University of Baluchistan (Quetta) among other degrees. He is a Fellow of Harvard University National and International Security Program, U.S. National Defense University International Fellow, and a member of the International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) and the Royal United Services Institute (RUSI).
Duraid Jalili is a doctoral student at the Defence Studies Department of King’s College London and Graduate Teaching Assistant at the U.K. Joint Services Command and Staff College. His research focuses on areas including learning strategies for international officers at senior defence colleges, the use of professional military education as a defence engagement and soft power asset, and the enhancement of inter-cultural awareness and communication skills within and across militaries. Prior to his doctorate, he worked in the private sector as an organiser and consultant for military ←227 | 228→training courses, lectures, conferences, and exhibitions, engaged with such organisations as the U.S. Military Training Mission, USAFCENT, Royal Saudi Air Defence Forces, Brazilian Navy, UAE Armed Forces, Nigerian Armed Forces, and U.K. MoD.
Dr. Jowati Juhary is Professor in the Department of Languages and Cultures at the National Defence University of Malaysia. Her research interests include educational technology, pedagogy, language education, and cross-cultural communications. Dr. Juhary holds a BEd and an MA from the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, and a PhD from Monash University (Australia). Her doctoral thesis focussed on the transformation of the Military Academy of Malaysia, now known as the National Defence University of Malaysia. She has published widely on the topic of professional military education as well as supervising a broad range of PhDs and masters’ dissertations in the field.
Major General (Ret.) Dr. Noel Khokhar currently works as Professor and Executive Dean of the Forman Christian College University, in Lahore. Prior to this, he served as Director General of the Institute for Strategic Studies, Research and Analysis (ISSRA) in the National Defense University (Islamabad), with responsibility for the provision of research for service Headquartersof the Pakistan Armed Forces and relevant government ministries, the formulation of military doctrine, and the creation of courses on national security, national media, information operations and other topics. In addition to the ISSRA, Dr. Khokhar has served in professional military education roles including Chief Instructor at the National Defense University, instructor at the Command Staff College (Quetta) and Pakistan Military Academy (Kakul), as well as serving as general officer commanding (GOC) 23rd Infantry Division (Jhelum). He is a graduate of Quaid-e-Azam University, King’s College London, and the Royal College of Defence Studies, and has been bestowed with the Hilal-i-Imtiaz (Crescent of Excellence) award for distinguished military service.
Lieutenant Colonel Mahammad Moumin serves as the Deputy Commander and Director of Studies at the Military Academy of the Republic of Djibouti Armed Forces. He has studied at the École Spéciale Militaire de Saint-Cyr, the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, Webster University, ←228 | 229→l’Université Jean Moulin Lyon III, Cranfield University, and the U.S. Army War College.
Colonel (Ret.) Juan Carlos Liendo O’Connor is a professor of international conflict, negotiation, and global power politics at the Universidad San Ignacio de Loyola. He also serves as an active member of the university’s International Relations Council. Prior to this, he served as Colonel in the Peruvian Army, in roles including Professor of Military Intelligence, History, and Strategy at the army’s Command and General Staff College, and part-time instructor at the Peruvian Military Academy, the Military Intelligence School, and the Peruvian National Intelligence Directorate. Colonel Liendo possesses extensive experience across both the public and private sectors in strategic analysis and consultancy on issues of operational security and strategic risks, as well as broader security and military cooperation in Latin America.
Colonel Ulysses Prada currently works as a professor in the fields of military history, strategy, and geopolitics in institutions including the Instituto Militar de Estudios Superiores (IMES), the Centro de Altos Estudios Nacionales (CAEN), and the Escuela de Comunicaciones del Ejército, among others. In addition to teaching roles, he has served as 2nd Battalion Chief and Brigade Commander in the Uruguayan Army, as well as Deputy Director of the School of the General Staff, and Director of the Escuela de Sanidad de las Fuerzas Armadas. He holds postgraduate qualifications from the IMES and CAEN, among other institutions.
Dr. Urip Purwono is a senior lecturer at the Faculty of Psychology, Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia. He received his PhD in Psychology from the University of Massachusetts, specializing in psychometrics. He also possesses an MSEd in Education from Indiana University, an MSc in Psychology from the University of Massachusetts, and Drs. in Clinical Psychology from the Padjadjaran University, Indonesia. He joined the Faculty of Psychology at Padjadjaran University in 1985, then founded and headed the Centre of Psychometric Study, Assessment, and Evaluation. His teaching assignments include undergraduate and graduate level courses in the area of quantitative research methodology, psychological assessment, test theories, and test construction. Dr. Purwono is currently involved in ←229 | 230→the development of an Indonesian CHC Based Intelligence Test, as well as research into youth achievement, values and religiosity related to individual well-being, as well as test theory, test construction, test adaptation, and structural equation modelling.
Andrea Falla Rubiano is a lecturer at the Escuela Militar de Aviación ‘Marco Fidel Suárez’ (EMAVI), of the Colombian Air Force. Ms. Falla holds degrees in philosophy from the Universidad del Valle and in Education from the Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá. She is currently completing her doctorate in Education at the Universidad de San Buenaventura, Cali.
Dr. Harry Susianto is a senior lecturer at the Faculty of Psychology at the University of Indonesia. He received a PhD in Behavioural Economics from Erasmus University, an MSc in Social Psychology from the London School of Economics, and Drs. in Social Psychology from the University of Indonesia. His research interests include economic and consumer psychology, nonconscious processes, and psychological intervention.
Jorge Serrano Torres is Founder of Spartan Consulting Group. He possesses 22 years of experience as an analyst, advisor, consultant, researcher, and lecturer in strategic intelligence, counterintelligence, national security, drug trafficking, terrorism, and organized crime for various national institutions within Peru, including the Peruvian Air Force, Ministry of Interior, Centro de Altos Estudios Nacionales, Escuela de Inteligencia del Ejército, and Congreso de la República del Perú, among others. Mr. Torres holds a degree in Business Administration and is a member of the Foro de Profesionales Latinoamericanos de Seguridad (Buenos Aires). His publications have been translated into various languages including English, French, German, Russian, Portuguese, and Chinese.
Lieutenant Colonel Dr. Marcelo J. Alem Troncoso currently works as a professor at the Pontificia Universidad Católica Argentina (UCA), Escuela Superior de Guerra (ESG) and Universidad de la Marina Mercante (UMM). Dr. Troncoso originally joined the Infantry in 1985 and has deployed in Croatia (UNPROFOR) and Angola (UNAVEM). He is a specialist in jungle warfare and mechanised infantry, and has held roles including Head of Studies at the Escuela Suboficiales del Ejército, and ←230 | 231→Chief of the Courses Division at the Directorate General for Education of the Army. He holds qualifications from the Colegio Military de la Nacion, Inter-American Defense College, Instituto Enseñanza Superior del Ejército (IESE), Instituto Universitario del Ejército, and Universidad del Salvador.
Carla Álvarez Velasco is a lecturer and researcher at the Centre for Security and Defence of the Instituto de Altos Estudios Nacionales (IAEN) in Ecuador, specialising in security and international relations theory, foreign policy, drug policy, and small arms control policies. In addition to the IAEN, Ms. Álvarez has worked on projects with the Instituto Antártico Ecuatoriano (INAE) and the Centro Internacional para el Periodismo en América Latina (CIESPAL). She holds an MSc in international relations and is currently completing a PhD in political studies from the Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales (FLACSO).