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Higher Education Reform: Looking Back – Looking Forward

Second Revised Edition


Edited By Pavel Zgaga, Ulrich Teichler, Hans G. Schuetze and Andrä Wolter

The central focus of this book is the concept of higher education reform in the light of an international and global comparative perspective. After decades of far-reaching reform, higher education around the world has profoundly changed and now has to face the challenges of the present. This volume takes a close look at these changes, the drivers of change, their effects and possible future scenarios. In their contributions the authors discuss a variety of basic concepts: learning and teaching in higher education; financing and quality assurance; governance change; massification vs. equity and equality; internationalization and mobility, the implementation of lifelong structures in higher education.
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Massification and Diversity:


Has the Expansion of Higher Education Led to a Changing Composition of the Student Body? European and German Evidence

Introduction: Context and issues

One of the most important changes in higher education after the Second World War has been the massive expansion of social demand for and participation in higher education – in Europe as well as on other continents. Many countries show growing entry rates, comprising sometimes more than half of the age cohort. Many debates in higher education research and policy focus on the structural and institutional consequences of this development, such as further differentiation or diversification in national higher education systems at different levels – e.g. in the provision of programs, courses and degrees or in the structure of the system, between or within institutions (Trow 1974, Guri-Rosenblit, Sebkova, and Teichler 2007, Teichler 2008, Altbach, Reisberg, and de Wit 2017). The theory is widespread that the expansion and massification of higher education have been (or will be) accompanied by a process of differentiation in different forms. Expansion and differentiation are often considered as complementary paths in the development of higher education (Windolf 1990). Or, as Peter Scott wrote: “growth is now conceived of in terms of ‘difference’” (Scott 2015: 43).

There are several assumptions about the corresponding results of the expansion. A first assumption is that the rapid growth of higher education must have led to a more heterogeneous or diverse composition of the student body in terms of background, talents, motives and...

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