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Immigration Policy Studies

Theoretical and Empirical Migration Researches

Edited By Ufuk Bingöl

The migration movement, which has taken place since the beginning of the story of mankind, increasingly continues voluntarily or compulsorily for various reasons such as social challenges, technological revolutions and wars. Due to migration, many new questions emerge depending on these issues. Researchers from many different disciplines are looking for answers to these questions arising from migration movements. This book covers deep researches from different perspectives and disciplines upon migration by successful and expert researchers in their field. In this book, different and rigorous analyses of all areas influenced by migration are carried out and various dimensions of immigration studies are shown.

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Refugees in the Turkish Labor Market: Legal and Economic Analysis

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1 Introduction

Migration increased and became globalized in the world in 2000s. Thanks to globalization and revolution in technology, international movement has become easier. In 2015, the rate of immigrant population to the world population reached %3,3. %70 of international migrants are at the working age (World Migration Report, 2018:1–2). International migration is often the cause and result of different forms of conflict (Castles and Miller, 2008: 5). Turkey has also become an important immigration country besides being a country of emigration because of its geography. Political turmoil and the economic transformation in regions close to Turkey in the last 30 years caused different results in migration towards Turkey. The first of these is the transition of hundreds of thousands of people to Turkey with irregular migration and exchange movements caused by in particular Afghanistan, Iran and Iraq’s political asylum. The other is after the collapse of the socialist system in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union, citizens of this country’s coming to Turkey in order to find temporary jobs (İçduygu, 2010, p. 29). Migration affects not only the immigrants but also the societies that migrate and emigrate as a whole (Castles ve Miller, 2008, p. 11). It is understood that migration’s influence on the boundaries, economic growth, social relations, demographics, cultural values and in rare cases the unity of political stability directly affect the sovereignty (World Migration Report, 2018:11).

Immigration of non-Muslims to abroad and migration of Turkish and...

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