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Immigration Policy Studies

Theoretical and Empirical Migration Researches

Edited By Ufuk Bingöl

The migration movement, which has taken place since the beginning of the story of mankind, increasingly continues voluntarily or compulsorily for various reasons such as social challenges, technological revolutions and wars. Due to migration, many new questions emerge depending on these issues. Researchers from many different disciplines are looking for answers to these questions arising from migration movements. This book covers deep researches from different perspectives and disciplines upon migration by successful and expert researchers in their field. In this book, different and rigorous analyses of all areas influenced by migration are carried out and various dimensions of immigration studies are shown.

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The Economic Reflections on the Homeland of the Reverse Brain Drain Tendency in Turkish Scientific Diaspora


1 Introduction

Migration, which is equivalent to the history of humanity and caused by political, social, economic, natural disasters, is defined as the population movements that people have created towards other geographies where peace, tranquility and prosperity are established from a geography where people reside. Migration, a long-term phenomenon, is based on very different reasons. Migration movements can be classified according to the influence of the individual himself or others in the decision-making process, the geography boundaries of the immigration and the characteristics of the migrants. From this point, it is possible to classify the migration flows as the geography aspect of mobility; internal migration and external migration, according to whether there are external factors that affect the immigration decision of migrants; forced migration and voluntary migration and according to the characteristics of migrants; unskilled labor migration and skilled labor migration (brain drain).

Migration flows (forcibly or willingly) are an important factor shaping the society in immigrant receiving and sending geographies through their political, social, psychological and economic effects. Therefore, as some political, social and economic factors affect the migration flows, migration flows have some effects on both immigrant receiving and sending geographies.

The effects of migration on immigrant receiving and sending countries have been examined by different disciplines for many years. When the economy literature is examined, it is seen that intensive studies have been carried out on the negative effects of brain drain on the economies of sending countries in...

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