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Variability in Perspectives on Current Issues in Social Sciences


Daniel Bešina

Social and human sciences are currently in a special position. On the one hand, they are subject to frequent doubts and mistrust while on the other hand, there is a view that the 21st century will be a century of social and human sciences, addressing their importance in solving key cultural and social issues of humanity.

In general, however, we can observe a decreasing interest in human and social sciences. The authors of the book believe that the rejection of the importance of human sciences is based on a fundamental misconception of facts. Society's education and culture is a prerequisite for the economic level of each country. Innovation is not only a matter of technical importance; it is equally important to understand human cultural behaviour in the broadest possible context.

This book presents studies in selected topics from social, human and historical sciences that demonstrate the relevance of the research in the area under consideration. The contributors to this book are researchers in the departments of Archaeology, Ethnology and Folklore, History, Culture and Tourism Management of Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra.

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The evolution and formation of small settlements in Europe, with an emphasis on the territory of Slovakia


Abstract: The chapter presents the development of small medieval fortifications in a wide area of Europe. The development of medieval fortifications is briefly followed from the early Middle Ages to the Middle Ages. The problem is gradually narrowed down to the territory of Central Europe and finally, the development of medieval fortifications in the territory of Slovakia is more closely addressed.

Keywords: Middle Ages forts, terminology, motte, castles, nobility

The concept of medieval feudal settlements of a specific structural and functional form usually coincides with the concept of the castle, which is characteristic of the Gothic period. But upon closer observation it is clear that as a formation a medieval settlement is a significantly differentiated type of architecture. The structure of settlements depends on the time of creation, the type of feudalism and, of course, the function and importance of the settlement (Hejna 1965, 513). The most famous medieval fortifications were based on long-term socio-organizational and military needs. In general terms, they can be described as feudal settlements. From these facts, feudal settlements can be considered representative, administrative, organizational, military and economic units of monarchical institutions, and secular and ecclesiastical nobility.1

The form of the settlements was influenced by landscape. Situational placement depended on terrain morphology, usually based on the decision of the architect, who took into account contemporary customs and plans for settlement construction. The establishment of feudal settlements is associated with a phase in the social differentiation process in which...

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