Edited By Gevisa La Rocca and Juan Martínez Torvisco
What are the borders of risk? How is the perception of risk related to new technologies and digital changing? This book discusses these topics, moving from theories to research data, looking for concrete answers now, or taking a picture of reality. The volume is divided into three main sections: Exploring the Edges of Risk, according to sociological, psychological and artificial intelligence perspective; Technological and Digital Risks, exploring social media, cyberbullying, hate speech, social bots on digital platforms; Risk in the Cities, working with risk and deviance, risk communication, environmental and nuclear risks. Inside, research data from Europe, USA and Mexico are discussed.
Chapter Sixteen The Impact of Criminal Risk Assessment on Urban Planning (Thea Giacobbe)
In postmodern society, fear has become a constant in everyday life. It is represented by a surplus of insecurity, real or perceived, a sense of ubiquity of danger that can reach us everywhere, in any way and at any time (Bauman 2001, 2006).
Fear of crime is created by situations and settings that make people feel vulnerable to victimization (Pavarini 2006). The urban settings that create delinquency and generate fear are made by human beings.
Building architectures can describe and transmit messages that are not simply linked to their function (Amendola 2008, 2013), constituting privileged places for the development of criminal risk.
Indicators of “physical disorder” (lack of maintenance of roads and sidewalks, dirtiness, dereliction, urban decay, broken glass, graffiti) lead to “social disorder” (such as aggressive behavior towards residents and non-residents, scuffles between gangs, the presence of homeless people, beggars, drug addicts, prostitutes, but also dangerous driving and traffic. These are all signs that amplify the perception of risk) creating anxiety from incivilities.
This category of risk embraces the two dimensions of the sense of insecurity: the fear of becoming the victim of a crime – fear of crime – and the social concern for criminality – concern about crime – reinforced by criminal statistics, but also by the sensationalism of the media, the lack of trust in the institutions and, in addition, by globalization, which makes the danger of threats from abroad even closer.
Urban planning, urban design...
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