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Polish State Railways as a Mode of Transport for Troops of the Warsaw Pact

Technology in Service of a Doctrine

Series:

Zbigniew Tucholski

The subject of the book is the history of the planned use of Polish railway infrastructure during the Cold War as part of the strategic plans of the Warsaw Pact. Analysing both technical and operational issues related to railway military transportation in a historical perspective, the author presents the history of the military transportation service of the Polish Army and provides a detailed characteristics of the organizational structure, equipment and tasks of the military transportation units and railway troops. The book also deals with rail transports of the Soviet Army on the Polish State Railways. The work is not only the result of archival queries and interviews with retired officers of the military transportation service but also field research of railway infrastructure.

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6. MILITARY RAILWAY SIDINGS AND MILITARY RAILWAYS

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6. MILITARY RAILWAY SIDINGS AND MILITARY RAILWAYS

The fundamental tasks of military transport authorities of the Polish Armed Forces included the management and supervision of sidings and military railways at bases, units, depots, and military establishments (plants): at all major facilities, military operated standard-gauge sidings as well as internal narrow-gauge lines. Records of Board IV of the General Staff included approximately 200 military sidings with a total length of over 800 km; most transports of armaments, ammunition, materials, and fuels and lubricants were delivered by rail.

Initially, pursuant to a definition as per military regulations, lines were classified as military sidings branching off public tracks, and/or military railways – independent narrow-gauge lines operated internally, at Ministry of National Defence facilities.713 Military sidings were grouped by construction period:

a) owned and operated by the army until September 1st 1939, and sidings built for the military purposes during the war, taken over by the Polish Armed Forces upon liberation;

b) built after the war to the military and railway works plan of the Military Transports Board of the General Staff;

c) built as part of investment plans, or using internal methods making use of credit lines opened by the Department of Accommodation and Construction Services of the Polish Armed Forces, Investment and Construction Board of the Ministry of National Defence, Air Force Command and Anti-Aircraft Defence Command, Navy Command, and central institutions of the Ministry of National Defence and other military units – and made part of the military railway sidings inventory;

d) built or operated by civilian institutions and taken over for military purposes due to their nature, under inter-ministerial agreements and resulting orders issued by the Chief of the General Staff.

Following the introduction of the Regulations Concerning the Management of Military Railways and Military Railway Rolling Stock714 by the Ministry of National Defence, a new definition of military railways was adopted as well, ←287 | 288→extending to and including sidings and on-site railway tracks operated by military units, institutions, plants and enterprises. Sidings were defined as railway tracks intended for on-site (in-house) transport service, branching directly or indirectly off railway lines that were in public use via internal railway lines operated by a specific entity, not connected to the public railway network. Sidings and internal railway tracks would by definition not be distinguished as standard- or narrow-gauge facilities.

The users of military railways users were required to observe all regulations issued by the Ministry of Transport in the field of railway construction, maintenance and technical operation. Surface materials and railway equipment were kept on user records, and under supervision authorities by the Headquarters of Military Transport. The land on which military railways were built was appropriately evidenced by the authorities of the accommodation and construction services; land occupied by state-owned enterprises reporting to the Ministry of National Defence was evidenced by such enterprises.

Military railways were managed by the following entities: Military Transports Board of the General Staff, Military Transports Branches of the military districts, Navy, Ground Forces, National Air Defense (peer entities), military transport commands assisted by Military Transports units reporting to them, and military units (as users).

General supervision over military railways was performed by the head of the Military Transport service via line authorities reporting to him. Military railways on individual military district territory were managed by the heads of Military Transports at respective military districts.

The direct management of military railways operated by all users stationing on the areas of the given Regional State Railway Managements was entrusted to the respective military transport commands, assisted by the military transport authorities reporting to them. Professional soldiers and civilian employees were responsible for operating railways and managing related rail traffic at military units (defined as military railway users).

Military railways were constructed, extended and reconstructed according to investment plans drafted by the Ministry of National Defence. The respective Polish State Railways regulations applied to the design and construction of military railways.715 State Railway Managements exercised substantive and technical supervision over the construction of military railways.

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Upon construction, military railways were listed on record pursuant to a respective decision by the Transport Board of the General Staff of the Polish Armed Forces. Military railways had to meet all technical requirements for non-public use railways.

The registration of military railways was handled by a commission comprising representatives of the Military Transfer Command, Military Service of Accommodation and Construction, Polish State Railways, the party submitting the facility for registration, and the user. Upon registration, military transport authorities categorised the given military railway in recognition of its purpose and technical condition. The investor was obliged to remove any defects that were identified within the deadlines defined by the commission, prior to the final acceptance of the given railway for operation. Upon takeover of a facility comprising a railway siding from another ministry, authorities of the Headquarters of Military Transport would only inspect the siding and siding-related facilities – remaining facility assets (land included) would be inspected and approved by competent military authorities. Military railways approved by military transport authorities and entered into the army stock-lists were handed over to the military unit concerned. All military railways managed and operated by the Ministry of National Defence were listed on record as part of registers managed by the respective Military Transport Commands. They drafted military siding registration cards containing all the basic technical data as required.

A number of the respective military railway on the list was assigned by the Military Transport Command. The following numbering rules were adopted:716

Each number comprised three digits. The first digit corresponded to the Regional State Railway numbering. Ordinal numbers were applied as the second and third digits for standard-gauge railways.

Conversely, narrow-gauge railway numbering involved the digit “8” as the second one, the third digit was an ordinal one.

Railway numbering further involved slash-followed railway category designation, and a letter to reflect the main user category, as follows:

a) railways operated by military units of the:

Warsaw Military District, “W”

Pomorze Military District, “P”

Silesian Military District, “S”

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Railways operated by military units reporting to the:

Central institutions of the Ministry of National Defence, “C”

Naval Command, “MW”

Air Force Command, “L”

Command of the Polish Air Defence Forces, “O”

Letter markings of military railways operated by units reporting to the central institutions of the Ministry of National Defence, the Air Force Command, and the Command of the Polish Air Defence Forces were preceded by a letter designation of the military district on whose territory the railway was located. Users kept files for all military sidings and/or on-site railway tracks, comprising all documents concerning the respective railway facility. Whenever a facility changed hands, files were appropriately forwarded to the new user.

Pursuant to a special order of the Ministry of Transport, all works associated with the repair and maintenance of buildings and equipment on military railways717 were provided by the Polish State Railways infrastructure service.718

The following criteria applied to the process of military railways categorisation:

Category One: military railways or groups of tracks used by central or district depots

(plants) of hazardous materials;

Category Two: military railways or groups of tracks used by other central depots and military railways, the number of wagons that were loaded/unloaded exceeding 1,000 per annum;

Category Three: all other military tracks and railways.

Category One and Two military railways could comprise track groups or individual tracks classifiable as lower-category assets due to their nature.

Depending on the individual requirements and their technical condition, military railways and/or tracks could be re-classified annually. Maintenance works on military railways included, following the Polish State Railways rules:719 ongoing maintenance, running repairs, medium repairs, complete reinstatement, and other works.

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Polish State Railways were responsible for the delivery of all repair works and ongoing maintenance on narrow- and standard-gauge military railways not classified as internal railway systems, the user responsible for the repair and maintenance of the latter. Materials required for the purposes of such works were delivered by the Polish State Railways, on order and commission by the Headquarters of Military Transport. The scope of works required to secure the proper technical condition of all military railways temporarily excluded from operation (such as back-up airports) or tracks temporarily excluded from operation yet expected to be used in the future, would be defined by the Headquarters of Military Transport in co-operation with the Polish State Railways representatives.

The Headquarters of Military Transport submitted proposals concerning the use of military railways classified for liquidation (for reasons of limited workload and shortage of specific tasks) to the respective military transport authorities. Decisions concerning partial military railway liquidation (upon performing all arrangements as required) were made by the Headquarters of the Military Transport Service of the respective military district. Decisions concerning the transfer or a complete liquidation of military railways were made by the head of the Military Transport Board of the General Staff of the Polish Armed Forces.

Track layouts forming part of ammunition and explosives depots had to meet special security-related requirements. Such depots were usually located in large forest areas. Siding track systems were constructed according to specific camouflaging requirements and shunting technology rules. Two fundamental track system types were employed at ammunition and explosives depots: circuit track system (Regny, Stawy); and groups of parallel tracks (ending with buffer stops) branching off primary track layouts. Examples of such track systems include depots in Bezwola (constructed in the early 1950s) and in Nurzec.

Sidings at ammunition depots developed since the early 20th century would usually comprise an internal track group (siding station track layout) together with technical facilities and locomotive depot, and a communication track connecting circuit the tracks with high-length loops.

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Track layout of military railway siding No. 143 M.U. 3748, Nurzec, 1959. The diagram shows tracks arranged in a group of eight parallel storage tracks

Sample standard railway siding track layout for ammunition storage facilities

A significant distance between the adjacent sidings and the decentralisation of warehouses at a safe distance with respect to the range of possible explosion of materials stored in the individual warehouses, were to prevent the potential explosion of one warehouse to be transferred to other facilities. Two types of access to particular warehouses were usually designed, in the form of short fins branching off from peripheral tracks (the English system was not used in Poland) or warehouses were built directly at the peripheral tracks. The second system facilitated the shunting works in the storage depots.

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According to these assumptions, as early as in the 1930s the construction of two modern central ammunition depots of the Polish Armed Forces in Palmiry and Stawy near Dęblin has been completed.

Railway sidings on the premises of special importance were in some cases designed with independent connections to the Polish State Railways network.720

Track layout of the military siding No. 161, Military Unit No. 1530 Regny,as of 1959. The layout shows the peripheral tracks within the storage facility and three independent connections with the Regny, Mikołajów, and Koluszki railway stations

Source: Files of the Warsaw State Railway Regional Management

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Track layout of military siding No. 145, Military Unit No. 2186 Hajnówka, as of 1959. The diagram shows a group of warehouse, storage and traction tracks branching out from the main siding track

Source: Files of Warsaw State Railway Regional Management

The technology of shunting work on the sidings of ammunition depots included reloading of materials at the internal station area to the internal rolling stock (in order to ensure timely return of the wagons owned by the Polish State Railways as well as an independence from the Polish State Railways rolling stock). On the sidings of the storage sites transport was carried out with own rolling stock which was usually not allowed to operate on the Polish State Railways network.

Locally operated switches were usually used on military sidings. In principle, no other signalling devices were used. Only on the siding of the Osowiec site several manual stop signal shunting discs were installed in the 1950s.

On the few more extensive military sidings, employees and soldiers were transported to work stations in freight wagons adapted to transport people (TOWOS – freight wagons adapted for passenger transport) and old passenger carriages that were withdrawn from the Polish State Railways books since the ←294 | 295→1950s. Such transport procedures were performed: on the siding of the ammunition depot in Stawy (until 1970s), the siding of the military Mechanical Works in Głowno, the siding leading to the airport in Bielice721 and the military narrow-gauge railway in the Zielonka training area.

List of military sidings in the area of the Head of Military Transport in Warsaw, from 1959 (narrow-gauge sidings were not included, see the list of military narrow-gauge sidings)722

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List and basic characteristics of railway sidings in the Silesian Military District

List of Military Railway Sidings in the Silesian Military District area11

Railway siding number

Operating station

401/III/SOPK

Mierzęcice

402/III/S

Gliwice Port

403/III/SIG

Siemianowice

404/III/SOPK

Cykarzew

405/III/S

Zebrzydowice

601/III-S

Wrocław Popowice

603-III-S

Wrocław Swojczyce

604-III-S

Namysłów

(Jastrzębie Śl.)

605-III-S

Brzeg←299 | 300→

606-III-S

Brzeg

607-III-S

Brzeg

610-III-S

Komprachcice

611-III-S

Komprachcice

612-III-SIC

Krapkowice

613-S

Opole Zachód

614-III-S

Wrocław Klecina

616-III-S

Czernica Wrocławska

702/III/S

Czerwieńsk

703/III/S

Poznań Gł.

705/III/3 (S?)

Gubin

709/III/S

Trzemeszno Lubuskie

710/III/S

Poznań Gł.

712/III S

Gorzów Wlkp.

713/II SIC

Przewóz

715/III/S

Kostrzyn

716/III/S

Kunowice

717/III/S

Poznań Gł.

718/II/S

Żagań

719

Krzystkowice

720 (removed, register number changed to 609)

Głogów

721 (removed, register number changed to 715)

Radnica

722 (removed, register number changed to 707)

Poznań Wola

723 (removed, register number changed to 704)

Wałowice

11Based on photocopies of schematic plans and characteristics of military railways from the archives of the Transport Division of the Silesian Military District.

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Inventory of military rolling stock used on the military sidings of the Silesian Military District from the 1970s723

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6.1. Military narrow-gauge railways

In the post-war period, the Polish Armed Forces managed and operated several military narrow-gauge railways and sidings branching off from Polish State Railways narrow-gauge lines, on the internal areas of Navy bases, airports, warehouses and military training areas. Determining the exact number of such lines is extremely difficult given the scarcity of archival material (most of the technical files from the 1940s and 1950s in military archives are missing). In the case of some lines only partial information was found – excerpts from factory lists or rolling stock delivery records are the only indirect sources documenting their existence. The table below summarises all collected information on narrow-gauge railways and sidings operated by the Polish Armed Forces in the post-war period. List of narrow-gauge military railways

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In the 1940s and 1950s, the 600mm gauge railways were predominantly operated by German-built low power-output internal combustion locomotives. Unfortunately, due to the scarcity of archival material, there is no information about these vehicles. Already in the mid-1950s old diesel locomotives were withdrawn and replaced with new-built Wls40 diesel locomotives manufactured by Rolling Stock Repair Plant in Poznań. The following excerpt from the factory list and the list of these locomotives listed by their Polish Armed Forces numbers provides also details of their usage:

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List of military narrow-gauge diesel locomotives of WLs 40/50 type724

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WLs 40/50 diesel locomotives built for Polish Armed Forces725

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Technical specification of WLs40/50 locomotives726

Track gauge600 mm gauge standard construction

Weight in working order

7,8 t

Own weight

7,0 t

Number of powered axles

2

Wheel-base

1000 mm

Driving wheel diameter

550 mm←311 | 312→

Locomotive length

4380 mm

Locomotive width

1440 mm

Locomotive height

2200 mm

Minimum curve radius

10 m.

Number of gears

4

Speed on the respective gears

I – 4, II – 7, III – 11, IV – 17 km/h

Maximum speed

17 km/h

Maximum train weight on horizontal track

100 t

Standard version: Hand-screw brake, manual bidirectional sanding gear, electric lighting, signal bell and exhaust fume whistle.

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Characteristics of S64L type engine (WLs40 locomotives)

4-cylinder, 4-stroke, line Diesel engine, no compressor

Manufacturer

Andrychów Diesel Engine Factory

Engine power-output

44 HP

RPM

1200 rpm

Fuel consumption including 10 % tolerance

210 g/HPh

Oil consumption

8 g/HPh

Fuel tank capacity

75 l

Lubrication

Circulating

Cooling

forced circulation, water cooled

Engine start-up

electric starter or hand crank using de-compressors

The test consumption of fuels per hour of normal operation is 4.9 kg of diesel oil and 320 g of engine oil.

Characteristics of S-324 HL type engine (WLs50 locomotives)

4-cylinder, 4-stroke, line Diesel engine, no compressor

Manufacturer

Andrychów Diesel Engine Factory

Nominal power-output

50 HP

RPM

1200

Fuel consumption including 10 % tolerance

190 g/ HPh

Oil consumption

4 g/ HPh

Fuel tank capacity

136 l

Lubrication

Circulating

Cooling

forced circulation, water cooled

Engine start-up

electric starter

The test consumption of fuels per hour of normal operation is 4.9 kg of diesel oil and 320 g of engine oil.

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6.1.1. Military siding no. 289 Hrubieszów (Hrubieszów narrow-gauge railway)

Military siding No. 289 “Barracks” (750 mm gauge) branched at 12.113 km of the Polish State Railways narrow-gauge Werbkowice – Matcze line (Hrubieszów narrow-gauge railway) from track No. 1 with switch No. 201 and led to the area of JW 2122 Hrubieszów. The entrance to the siding was secured with a derailer, its single track was 823 meters long.

The siding was built in the inter-war period for the delivery of supplies to the barracks of the 2nd Horse Rifle Regiment in Hrubieszów. In the post-war period the track layout of the siding remained unchanged, the siding was operated with the use of Polish State Railways train locomotives. The operation of the siding was discontinued at the end of the 1980s.

6.1.2. Narrow-gauge military railway at the Field Artillery Research Centre in Zielonka (military siding No. 182) and standard-gauge siding No. 127727

In the post-war period, the Field Artillery Research Centre (JW 5059) was organised in Zielonka, and at the beginning of the 1950s, the adaptation of the training area for the needs of the military research facility began. A military narrow-gauge railway was built in the area of the Zielonka training ground in the interwar period. During the occupation years the Germans built a field airport in Zielonka – it’s area is currently used as military allotments. The narrow-gauge railway was probably used to transport materials for the construction of the field airport from Zielonka station.728 The pre-war narrow gauge railway was dismantled by the Soviet army in 1944. In connection with the organisation of artillery ←314 | 315→research stations and departments in the training area of a significant size (several dozen square kilometres), it was necessary to transport the equipment and employees to the research stations. It was then decided to construct a 750 mm narrow gauge railway. It was mostly built on the existing embankments of the pre-war narrow-gauge military line Zielonka – Rembertów (750 mm).

In 1952, the 7th Railway Troops Batallion from Września began the construction of a narrow-gauge railway for the needs of the Field Artillery Research Centre at the Zielonka field grouping. In 1953–1954, the 5th Railway Troops Batallion from Darłowo at the field grouping in Zielonka continued further work on the construction of the railway. In 1954, the 7th Railway Troops Batallion also carried out the construction works at another field grouping.

In 1951, the training company of the 7th Railway Troops Batallion built a standard gauge siding from Zielonka railway station to the unit729 (it was given number 127730). It had a total length of 3,744 m, and from the main siding track in km 2,178 there was a branch from it leading to the Railway Signalling Works.

On the area of the unit, on the right side of the main siding track No. 1a, a loading track No. 2 and a 70 m long front and side platform (narrow-gauge track no. 14 was also connected to the front of the ramp) were provided, while on its left side a dead-end track no. 3 with a 174 m long ramp was built. The main siding track ended with a buffer stop in front of which a protective dead-end track No. 4 was constructed. The standard-gauge siding was located near the narrow-gauge railway system – at the intersection of both track gauges a transhipment point was created from the siding to the narrow-gauge railway. The 30 m long transhipment ramp was located between the standard-gauge track of the siding and the narrow-gauge track, also the connecting loading track No. 2 was laid parallel to the narrow-gauge track No. 3.731

In the area of the military unit, narrow-gauge railway maintenance facilities were constructed in the form of a single-road, red brick rectangular locomotive shed (equipped with one inspection pit and a gable roof)732 and a two-road brick ←315 | 316→rolling-stock repair workshop733 (equipped with two inspection pits, a building with an arched roof), a transhipment ramp, a system of maintenance and stabling tracks and a dead-end track leading to the strict area of the T-1 laboratory (department of ammunition and artillery). A system of storage tracks and dead-end tracks leading to equipment and armament warehouses was created on the premises of the workshop. The track system in this area had many tight curves of 30 and 35 m, and a WLs150 locomotive had to negotiate these curves at a low speed because they were prone to derailments. A WLs75 locomotive on the other hand would pass through all the sharp curves due to the shorter wheelbase. At the end of the siding’s communication track, a loop was located close to the ammunition depots, which was also used to turn the rolling stock if necessary.734 Two railway crossings within the unit were initially equipped with manually operated traffic lights.735 The remaining crossings on the narrow-gauge railway network in Zielonka were not secured.

Within the training area a narrow-gauge railway network was built in the form of the following lines:736

a) the Zielonka – Pustelnik main line, 21,300 m long,

b) the Okuniew – Michałów perimeter line branching off from the main line in the area of the armoured centre at km. 8,500 in km 7,132 and connecting with the main line in the area of Krubki just after km 15,000 with a length of 10,550 m,

c) a branch starting in the ‘0’ point area, 920 m long, leading to the premises of the T-1 laboratory (on the premises of the institute),

d) a short branch at km 22, 350 m long, leading to the armoured centre “km. 8,500” (track 114).

Both on the main and the peripheral lines, in the area of artillery research and observation stations, the following loops were provided: “km. 3,500”, Zabraniec, Michałów, Łęka. In addition, near the branch leading to the area of the armoured ←316 | 317→centre “km. 8,500” and at the end of the line in Pustelnik dead-end tracks with front-and-side loading ramps were built.737

The tracks were laid on a sand trackbed (in some places the track was laid directly on the ground) with H90 and H93 rails (rail length from 7 to 12 m), on narrow-gauge wooden sleepers type II and standard gauge sleepers (1.2 – 1.3 m long). In total 34 H93 switches (right and left with a 1:7 diagonal) without locks, equipped with non-standard switch lamps that did not indicate the position of the switch, were built into the main tracks, station and depot tracks.738 Due to the lack of switch locks, the provisions of the regulations ordered the locomotive crew to stop the train or single locomotive before entering each switch, in order to check the switch points’ condition.739 The highest longitudinal incline on the line was 8 ‰ and the smallest curve radius on the line was 75 m. The surface used allowed the rolling stock with the highest axle load of 6 t to be used.740

In 1953, eight temporary wooden bridges with a wooden surface on piles were built along the entire line: at km 6,500 L = 24 m, at km 6,550 L = 20 m, at km 8,050 L = 16 m, at km 11,050 L = 5 m, at km 11,150 L = 10 m, at km 15,500 L = 16,8 m, at km 16,800 L = 15 m and at km 17,600741 L = 8,5 m.742 In addition, next to the narrow-gauge railway track at km 9,200 and 12,000, concrete bunkers were located to protect the observers during shooting.

Five permanent loading ramps and platforms (four wooden and one paved) were also built on the narrow-gauge railway network in Zielonka:743

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Along the line an over-ground MB system telephone line on concrete poles was also built. At the following points on the line sockets were provided for connection of field telephone apparatus: at km 0.700, km 1.000, km 1.500, km 2.000, km 2.500, km 3.500, km 4.000, km 6.000, at the line junction in the area of the armoured centre “km. 8,500,” on the Zabraniec passing loop, on the fire observation towers no. 15, 16, 17, 18, on the dead-end track by the bunkers744 in km 9,200 and km 12,000.745746 Maintenance of the telephone network within the training ground was carried out by the field communication team.747 In 1954, the 5th Railway Troops Battalion completed the construction of the railway, the total length of the line and all tracks reached 37.468 km.748

Due to the fact that the complete line was located within the internal area of the training area, the complete military railway line was formally considered as station tracks.

On June 30th 1954, the Director of the Regional State Railway Management in Warsaw approved the Technical Regulations for Railway Operation prepared by ←318 | 319→the Regional Management of State Railways in Warsaw and the design of railway traffic protection equipment (also developed by the Regional Management of State Railways in Warsaw).749

Train traffic on the military railway in Zielonka was initially based on internal instructions developed by Field Artillery Research Centre, which was adapted to the local needs. Some of its provisions, however, were contrary to the then in force – Przepisy ruchu na kolejach wąskotorowych użytku publicznego W 2,750 e.g. § 10 point. 24: “In the event of sighting a train running towards another train or from a junction of the track, brake immediately and give short whistle signals until the observed train comes to a standstill, or § 25: If a sighted train does not stop, it is imperative to reverse the train with the other train is driving towards us, giving a whistle signal, until the sighted train stops.”751

The military railway transported equipment, guns and ammunition, sand for the protective dykes and building materials, as well as soldiers and civilian workers to the research stations. Ammunitions were transported from warehouses in the T-1 workshop (ammunition and artillery department). The equipment after the completion of the tests as well as the fired bullets were brought back to the institute as a return load for testing. On the premises of the institute, loads arriving (and dispatched) via the standard-gauge siding were transhipped onto the ng. rolling stock. Cannons were transported on narrow-gauge flat-wagons (they were loaded on a ramp on the institute’s premises), while box vans were used to transport ammunition. No protective wagons were added when trains were conveying dangerous goods (which was contrary to the regulations in force).752 In the training area, there was a top-secret armoured centre “km. 8,500” it was separated and additionally protected. Anti-tank ammunition was tested there. A short siding was connected to the centre, which was used to deliver marked armoured plates transported on flat wagons. These were placed in special stands and, after being placed on the research stands, they were shot at from anti-tank cannons. After the tests, the plates were transported to Zielonka in order to undergo tests. Two ramps were built near the “km. 8,500” site, which were used for unloading and loading of the cannons delivered to the centre and anti-tank launchers mounted on lorries. There was also a gantry crane on the premises of the armoured centre designed to lift the ←319 | 320→armoured plates off the wagons. The area of the armoured centre was covered with a special protective dike.

In the seventies, a body of a withdrawn four-wheeled narrow-gauge van was set up next to the track running by the armoured centre, intended as a shelter for track workers.753

From the very beginning of its existence on the military railway in Zielonka, employees were transported to work stations in adapted passenger cars.754 In principle, the Łęka – Pustelnik line was intended only for transporting employees to the institute from Pustelnik. Two wooden ramps (platforms) in km 0.300 and 3.600 were probably made to make it easier for the employees to embark and disembark the carriages already during the construction of the railway. On 29th April 1970, at the request of the Regional State Railway Management in Warsaw, the Narrow-gauge Railway Management issued a formal permission for ancillary passenger transports.755 Soldiers and employees were transported to the research stations by a train combined of a locomotive and a passenger carriage or a trolley with a GAZ-51 engine.

In order to carry higher officers and foreign delegations for demonstration shooting, a second-class Bx-2281 passenger carriage was rebuilt in the Rolling Stock Repair Plant Opole from the Jabłonowska KD into a self-propelled headquarters car/ saloon car (the engine used was from a ZIS-150 lorry), commonly called the “General Saloon.” The carriage was equipped with two compartments: an elegant office lined with walnut panelling with armchairs and a conference table, and a slightly simpler compartment for 30 passengers.

During the visits of important delegations, the head of the canteen organised a buffet operated by a waiter. During the field tests of the “Malutka” anti-tank missile, General Wojciech Jaruzelski was riding it to the research station.756

This vehicle was also used to transport the invited guests during the Exhibitions of Armament Technical Progress of the Warsaw Pact. During the ←320 | 321→demonstrations of combat equipment, Colonel Mu’ammar al-Kaddafi also was riding it to the research station.757

The military railway was part of the organisational structure of the Section for Internal Transport and Railways under the responsibility of the Field Department, which managed the entire training ground.758 The military narrow-gauge railway and the standard-gauge railway siding No. 127 were managed by the head of the Internal Transport and Railway Section. During the existence of the narrow-gauge railway, this function was performed by the following officers: from 1950s to 1974 Captain Jan Ataman, 1976–1984 Captain Jerzy Zieliński, 1984–1990 Captain Jan Mazur.

The head of the transport section supervised and controlled the operation and maintenance of the railway. He was managing the work of a traffic controller and a track foreman (an equivalent of a trackman). On the other hand, the track maintenance staff (appropriate track workers) and the track maintenance staff were subordinated to the foreman’s office.759 On the Zielonka railway line, the track was maintained by one track maintenance brigade. The train traffic was managed by the manager of the transport section in accordance with § 10 point 1 of the discussed manual: Train traffic control may be ordered by the head of the traffic section and his superiors.760 In his absence, the movement of trains was managed by a directional (operational) officer of the Ordnance Research Centre, during shooting he issued a permit to run a train or a rail vehicle each time.761

In the initial period of its operation, of all the personnel employed at the military railway only a steam locomotive driver and a permanent way section supervisor (delegated from the Regional State Railways Management in Warsaw) had thorough examinations. Five railway employees were employed762 in order to operate the line soldiers of the compulsory military service (civilian railwaymen) were also assigned.

←321 | 322→

On the military railway there was a lack of basic railway signalling devices, as well as indicators and distant signals which according to railway regulations should be placed along the entire line.763

After the control on 9th April 1960 the railway was allowed to operate conditionally with the reservation that the railway administration was obliged to renovate the track, to make a telephone line exclusively for train signalling communication764 and install control, command and signalling devices. Before the introduction of these recommendations, the committee decided that: traffic on the line was to take place with speeds not exceeding 15 km/h, on curves and witches: 5 km/h. In addition, there could only be one train on the route and a train with no hand brakes could not exceed three wagons.765

The Ordnance Research Centre developed a Regulamin obsługi kolei wąskotorowej (bocznica nr 182) [The Regulations for Operation of a Narrow-Gauge Railway (siding no. 182)] approved by the Regional State Railway Management in Warsaw, the Narrow-gauge Railway Management on 17th September 62, the new regulations met the requirements of the railway regulations.

Train announcements were made by means of telephone communication used for military purposes, while there was no telephone communication for announcements or dispatching. Each traction vehicle was equipped with a field telephone. The only traffic post on the line, in Zielonka (loops and branches on the complete network were not staffed) decided on the order of train departures. A train composed of six wagons was manned by the locomotive crew only (which was not in accordance with the regulations).

There could be two trains on the route during daytime and only one train at night. A deviation from the above provisions of the regulations could have been an operation, with special safety measures, of the third train during the day and the second during the night as a rescue train.766 Trains were operated as required, usually one train a day. During intensive research work, the number of trains increased accordingly, occasionally during night shooting trains were also run at night. Sometimes a large calibre bullet would hit the railway track, then a ←322 | 323→bomb sites of significant size (depth of several meters) were formed, which were filled-in with sand. However, it was not possible to compact the soil properly, which is why the track initially subsided in these places.767

In October 1963, the section from the Łęka passing loop to Pustelnik dead-end track, about 4 km long, was dismantled.768

In the 1960s, the bridges on the line were rebuilt, replacing the wooden span structures with steel H-beams. However, the wooden abutments of most of the bridges were still left intact.

The deteriorating technical condition of the wooden bridges caused that on 7th July 1972 the Headquarters of the Military Transport Service issued a decision to close the bridge at km. 6.5, the part of the railway beyond the bridge was thus withdrawn from operation.769 The Narrow-gauge Railway Management Commission has ordered that a D1 stop sign and a barrier beam permanently secured against the possibility of removing it from the track are placed on the track in front of the bridge. Due to the traffic being suspended on the complete railway line, the bridge at km 6.5 as well as the second one that was in poor condition were quickly rebuilt within one month. On 23rd Aug. 1974 both bridges were accepted for further operation after a major rebuilt,770 check rails were fitted to the bridge in km. 6.5 as well as on the remaining bridges.

In 1976, JW 1039 Przemyśl carried out a major reconstruction of the standard-gauge military siding No. 127,771 type 31 rails were replaced with S-42 rails. These were in turn used on the narrow-gauge railway to replace the worn out type H90 rails. In the following years, the narrow-gauge railway continued to replace half of the H90 rails used in the main tracks with type 31 and 6d rails. Light rails and wooden sleepers were replaced with concrete sleepers in the first place, on the section from km 4 to km 8 to the river. In this difficult swampy terrain wooden sleepers rotted very quickly, and had to be frequently replaced.772

←323 | 324→

In the mid-1970s, the loading equipment at the Zielonka institute had also been modernised. Around 1974 an end loading platform for rolling stock transhipment773 was built with a front wall made of bridge sleepers. A short standard-gauge track from the siding to the fuel depot and a short narrow gauge track from the track leading to the transhipment ramp were both connected to the ramp. Around 1975, a wooden dock loading ramp made of sleepers was replaced by concrete retaining wall, which allowed forklift trucks to enter the wagons directly on the loading bridges.774

In the late 1970s, in order to eliminate the troublesome transhipment from the standard-gauge siding to the narrow-gauge railway, it was planned for standard gauge wagons to be transported on narrow-gauge transporter wagons at the Zielonka military railway. In order to get acquainted with this mode of transport, Major Jerzy Zieliński, head of the Internal Transport and Railway Section, was delegated to the Mława Narrow-gauge Railway. However, due to sharp curves within the institute, which would be too tight to be traversed by narrow-gauge transporter wagons, this idea had to be abandoned.775

As a non-public railway, the narrow-gauge military railway no. 182 in Zielonka was under the supervision of the Polish State Railways, Regional State Railway Management in Warsaw, Narrow-gauge Railway Management. Every two years the Narrow-gauge Railways Management commission made an inspection on the railway and controlled its operation. Periodic training of drivers was carried out by the Piaseczno narrow-gauge depot and the Tłuszcz standard-gauge depot, while periodical instructions of traffic service employees at WRS Targówek.

Around 1984, the railway workshop building was demolished.776 In the 1980s, it was decided to replace the narrow-gauge railway with road transport. The construction of an internal road in the training ground was started, which lead from the institute in Zielonka to the armoured centre “km. 8,500.” It was completed up to km 5, because the difficult wetland made it impossible to complete the investment. The dismantling of the railway began with the use of road transport in 1990, and in the summer of the following year the dismantling of the tracks ←324 | 325→in the training ground and the institute was completed. After the closure of the narrow-gauge railway due to the lack of good roads within the training ground, the equipment and materials had to be transported by road to the armoured centre through Okuniew, which meant that the transport distance was extended by 67 km.777

As a result of the efforts of the management and employees of the Railway Museum in Warsaw, in 1992–1993 the Head of the Military Transport Service of the Ministry of National Defence handed over to the Branch of the Railway Museum in Sochaczew the WLs150-3800 locomotive, a Bx 2281 railcar, a Bh 1122 passenger carrige, 11 freight wagons, a DSNA 175/68 motorcycle engine trolley and a battery trolley adapted for rail operation.

At present, the only remnants of the narrow-gauge railway at the Military Institute of Armament Technology in Zielonka is a single-road locomotive shed, a concrete loading ramp and a railway gate. In the training area, the embankments can still be clearly seen (partly used as forest roads) together with the remains of the telephone line, while the wooden bridges were mostly demolished (only abutments remained).

6.1.3. Rolling stock

Polish State Railways leased two narrow-gauge steam locomotives to the Polish Armed Forces: Ty1-1085 (Freudenstein No. 3/1899), lease started on 3rd June 1953 and Ty1-1142 (Krauss München No. 6806/1913), leased from the Warsaw Military District Nasielsk depot since 23rd September 1953.

Also in 1953, the Ministry of Transport handed over 11 freight wagons to the Field Artillery Research Centre (from the Wrocław Narrow-gauge Railway): 3 four-wheeled vans, 6 four-wheeled flat wagons and 2 bogie flat wagons. The four-wheeled vans and flat wagons were manufactured by Waggonfabrik Hofmann A.G. Breslau in 1895. Two Saxon bogie flat wagons were built at the Chemnitz factory in 1900 and 1905. All freight wagons were equipped with tramway couplings.

On 13th August 1954, the lease of the Ty1-1142 steam locomotive was terminated and it was returned to narrow-gauge depot at Biała Podlaska.

In 1957, the lease of two passenger carriages from the Polish State Railways depot Warszawa Stalowa started: on 23rd Oct. 1957 four-wheeled Bh 1125 and on 27th Dec. 1957 a bogie carriage Bx 1307 (Rolling Stock Repair Plant Opole). On 30th June 1958, the lease of this carriage was terminated and it was returned ←325 | 326→to the Warszawa Stalowa due to the limited turning capacity of the bogies, which prevented its operation on the narrow-gauge railway in Zielonka, due to the difficulty in negotiating tight curves.

On 1st Jan. 1972, the lease of the second carriage Bh 125 was also terminated and it was returned to the Warszawa Stalowa depot. On 3rd Dec. 1971 a four-wheeled passenger carriage Bh 1122 (Beuchelt & Co. 1900) was handed over to Zielonka from the narrow-gauge railway in Kętrzyn.

Passenger carriages and freight wagons were sent for periodic repairs to narrow-gauge depot at Warszawa Stalowa, and then, after this depot has closed, to narrow-gauge depots in Rogów and Mława.

Before 1958, a bogie 800 mm passenger carriage Bx 2281 from the then closed Jabłonkowska railway, intended for work on the military railway in Zielonka, was handed over to the Polish Armed Forces by the Central Management of Narrow-gauge Railways of the Ministry of Transport. The carriage was handed over for reconstruction at the Rolling Stock Repair Plant Opole (at that point the workshop specialised in the construction and repairs of narrow-gauge carriages and railcars) where it was re-gauged for 750 mm (new welded construction bogies were made) and rebuilt into a saloon railcar. The railcar was fitted with a driving system powered by a petrol engine coming from a Russian ZIS-150 military lorry.

In 1960, a prototype of a narrow-gauge diesel locomotive WLs150-3800 (Chrzanów 3800/60) was purchased from the factory in Chrzanów for the Ordnance Research Centre in Zielonka.

In 1965, another narrow-gauge diesel locomotive WLs75-33 (Rolling Stock Repair Plant Poznań 33/65) was purchased from Rolling Stock Repair Plant Poznań; this purchase enabled the withdrawal of steam traction.

In the same year, the lease of the Ty1-1085 steam locomotive was terminated, it was returned to the Warszawa Stalowa depot, where it was removed from the Polish State Railways stock-list on 30th Dec. 1965778 and scrapped.

The Zielonka railway also operated an internal combustion trolley Lb 10/51, because of its looks commonly referred to as “the frog” by the railway and institute employees. There is no information about the origin or manufacturer of the vehicle. It was powered by a petrol engine from a Russian GAZ 51 military lorry. ←326 | 327→It was a four-wheeled vehicle with one cab in which the engine was installed in the protruding engine compartment. The trolley had 20 seats, it had an extremely wide bodywork, which protruded 1.5 m on each side. When riding fast on sharp curves the trolley would often overturn (especially when passengers were sitting on a bench on one side of the vehicle only). The vehicle was scrapped in Zielonka around 1975,779 due to an unsafe design and the wear of an obsolete engine.

In 1968, in the workshops of the Military Institute of Armament Technology staff sergeant Henryk Chrzanowski built, as his diploma thesis at the evening Mechanical & Technical School in Zielonka,780 a five-person motor trolley, which was numbered DSNA 175/68.781 It was powered by a WFM motorcycle engine, which was soon replaced by a Jawa motorcycle engine. Initially, the trolley had standard steel wheels turned in the workshops of the Main Mechanics Department of the Military Institute of Armament Technology in Zielonka. These wheels were soon replaced by tram-design wheels equipped with rubber inserts.782

In 1977, the engine of the locomotive WLs75-33 seized, after a few years the locomotive was transferred for periodic repair in the Motor Vehicle and Equipment repair Workshop in Brzesko, where it was removed from the Polish Armed Forces inventory in 1985. After many years at the factory, the locomotive was preserved as a museum exhibit. It is currently awaiting restoration at the Cisna-Majdan station (Bieszczadzka Kolej Leśna).

In the strict T-1 area, a battery-powered Stalowa Wola trolley (built in 1955) was also used for transporting ammunition, adapted for rail operation. The trolley was handed over to the Branch of the Railway Museum in Sochaczew in 1992.

No military locomotives or wagons assigned to Zielonka were used on the standard-gauge siding No. 127. However, on 13th March 1982, a four-wheeled standard-gauge OPL wagon (built in 1933), series S, WP-38-43206783 from ←327 | 328→the Head of Military Transport in Kraków (Railway Equipment Storehouse in Przemyśl) was handed over to the Zielonka Military Institute of Armament Technology. The body of the wagon was to be placed near the railway track as a warehouse. As the wagon was out of gauge it was finally scrapped a few years later, and an armoured plate removed from its body was used to reinforce one of the shelters.

List of locomotives and trolleys

←328 | 329→

←329 | 330→

List of carriages

←330 | 331→

List of freight wagons

←331 | 332→

←332 | 333→

6.1.4. Narrow-gauge 600mm railway on the Hel peninsula (military siding No. 582)

In 1931, the construction of a modern war port by the peninsula promontory in the settlement of Hel began. It was led by the French-Polish Consortium for Port Construction under the direction and supervision of Polish engineers.784 The southern spur, which closed the harbour basin from the side of the fishing port, was built by eng. Jan Śmidowicz.785 A standard-gauge siding branching off the tracks of the Hel railway station (Reda – Hel line) was constructed. These were basically two independent sidings leading to the coasts of both harbour basins (North and West Breakwater). One branched directly from the head of the Hel station, and the other was an extension of the main track of the Hel station. There are also tracks under the crane and under the tippers of sea mines on the newly built quay.

Parallel to the construction of the port basin in Hel, the construction of modern storage facilities on the peninsula in the form of sea mines, torpedoes and ammunition shelters was carried out. Until the completion of these investments, these materials were stored in the Modlin Fortress, where the former Russian forts housed the Central Naval Warehouse.786

In 1933, the construction of sea mines and torpedoes shelters began, these objects were located in the widest part of the peninsula, a few kilometres from the emerging war port. The storage facilities were located at a large distance from each other due to the danger of explosion transfer on a military area of considerable size. Natural dunes and a forest created favourable conditions for such objects to be masked, starting from the 1930s the action of afforestation of the peninsula was carried out in order to counteract the observation of military objects from the air. Sea mine shelters were provided in the form of reinforced concrete brick halls, with gantry cranes and narrow-gauge tracks inside. TNT depots were located at the edge of the warehouses guardhouses next to the railway gate. All buildings were reinforced concrete structures, they were masked from the top with a layer of soil. Special underground structures included four ammunition bunkers, designed mainly for the artillery ammunition for destroyers (coastal and anti-aircraft batteries had their own ←333 | 334→ammunition bunkers). These shelters were recessed into the terrain to the depth of 3 m, in addition, they were covered with soil 6 m thick. The narrow-gauge railway tracks passed through all the rooms of the shelter, the construction of the shelters was completed in 1937.

In 1935, the construction of a combat power plant started (construction works were carried out by the company of K. Jaskulski and K. Brygiewicz from Gdynia). It was built as a reinforced concrete hall with two internal combustion engines of 400 HP power output each and a 100 HP engine (for daytime operation). A diesel oil depot, together with lubricant storage were also built. A narrow-gauge railway line was also brought to the power plant, supplying fuel, lubricants and other materials. The complete object was covered with earth for masking, its construction was completed in the spring of 1939.787

After the completion of the construction of the port and storage facilities, the Hel War Port Captain’s Office was created. Initially, the Port Captain was subordinate to the Commander of the section of the Hel Coast, and since 1936 to the Commander of the Fortified Region of Hel.788

On 21st Aug. 1936, by decree of the President of the Republic of Poland, the Fortified Region of Hel was established.789

For the transport of ammunition, torpedoes, war material and ship supplies from storage and support facilities scattered and located at a considerable distance from it, as well as to transport ammunition to artillery stations, a network of narrow-gauge railways was built on the area of the base.

In the first half of 1934, a tender for the construction of a narrow-gauge railway line was announced. The tender was won by K. Jaskulski and K. Brygiewicz & Co. from Gdynia; on July 20th 1934, the head of the Navy’s management ordered the company to commence works.790 Thanks to the efforts undertaken in the Ministry of Military Affairs, the first batch of surface materials – rails and switches – was obtained free of charge.791

It was planned to build 1000mm-gauge tracks, but a more standard 600 mm gauge was applied, the flat terrain of the Hel peninsula did not pose any difficulties ←334 | 335→with earthworks, slopes and hills were minimal, and gentle curves were used on the lines. When designing the railway, a track layout typical for military railways and warehouse sidings was adopted in the form of closed loops – circumferential tracks, from which short tracks leading to individual warehouses branched off. A network of narrow-gauge tracks was built at the warehouses, entry to individual warehouses took place through a system of small single wagon turntables, produced by Walter Hoene from Gdańsk (shunting work in the warehouse area was carried out by manual repositioning of four-wheeled flat wagons). Passing loops were provided at individual objects. The entry to particularly sensitive parts of the network was possible through four track triangles – such a system provided the possibility of directly entering a given section without the need to perform complex shunting work.

At a distance of 1.9 km before the Hel railway station a crossing of the narrow-gauge railway with the Reda – Hel railway line was built, the standard-gauge track line from Puck was led over the narrow-gauge railway track along a concrete overpass (its cross-section was 3 m high and 2.6 m wide).792 One of the lines was led to the southern tip of the Hel Peninsula, for the delivery of supplies and ammunition for the Heliodor Laskowski battery. In order to ensure independent field handling of military materials, a siding was located at the standard-gauge track at a distance of about 2.8 km from the station in Hel, which ended at a distance of about 300 metres behind the 32nd artillery battery.793 In the port at the North Breakwater, another transhipment point was located at the narrow-gauge siding parallel to the standard-gauge siding, while the narrow-gauge siding was also led to the West Breakwater.794

At the Hel railway station there was also a connecting station in the form of an end and side loading ramp with a narrow-gauge track layout and a standard-gauge siding. The short side loading track branched from the line leading to the cape to the H. Laskowski battery.795 Before the Hel station there was also the second intersection of the narrow-gauge railway track with ←335 | 336→the Reda – Hel line. It was a horizontal crossing, protected only by distant signals.796

A network of narrow-gauge railways with a total length of 26 km797 and a gauge of 600 mm was built.798

On the most important sections the tracks were masked with anti-air observation nets. Efficient functioning of the railway was possible thanks to the telephone network connecting the guardhouses of individual warehouses and depots.

It was not possible to use steam locomotives on the narrow-gauge railway because the smoke and steam from a locomotive would betray the exact location of the train to the enemy. At the same time, sparks from steam locomotives in specific climatic conditions may have led to an unpredictable fire.799

For this reason, it was decided to use internal combustion traction. At that time Polish State Railways had a design of narrow-gauge internal combustion locomotives. At the request of the Navy Management, the vehicle documentation was handed over to the Navy.800 On its basis, a tender was issued, to which companies specializing in the construction of rolling stock were invited, Wytwórnia Parowozów Zakładów Ostrowieckich (formerly: Warszawska Spółka akcyjna Budowy Parowozów) and two German companies were invited. As a result of the evaluation of the sent cost estimates, it was decided to commission the construction of two locomotives to the Polish manufacturer (the cost estimate price was PLN 80 thousand).801

The chassis and body of the locomotive were developed in the Ostrowiec Locomotive Factory. The vehicle was powered by a modern diesel engine designed by prof. Ludwik Eberman of the Lviv Polytechnic, with a power output of 50 HP at 650 rpm, type 2 C 18/25. It had an air starting system by means of ←336 | 337→air cylinders mounted at the back of the locomotive. To fill them with 30 Atm compressed air, a two-stage compressor located in the gearbox was used. The locomotive was equipped with a three-speed mechanical transmission type S 55 – with constantly intermeshed gears and friction multi-plate clutches. The power transmission from the gearbox to the locomotive axles was carried out by means of gear wheels and Gall chains. The vehicle was equipped with a handbrake, two sanders – one for each direction of travel, and a 12V electrical system. At the request of the Navy Management two machines were built, which were delivered to Hel after acceptance tests at the beginning of 1938, several fuel stations and depots were built at Hel for diesel locomotives.802

The wagons for transporting ammunition, mines, torpedoes and all kinds of materials were built in the thirties by the Navy Port Workshops in Gdynia – these were four-wheeled wagons of limited capacity.803

On June 7th 1937, the head of the Navy Headquarters ordered the entire narrow-gauge railway in Hel to be subordinated to the commanding officer of the Fortified Region of Hel.804

It should be emphasised that this transport system supplied the whole defence system of the Fortified Region of Hel. The direct manager of the railways was to be the Captain of the War Port of Hel, but in fact in 1938 all the narrow-gauge rolling stock belonged to the Underwater Weapons Service of the War Port of Gdynia.

During the German occupation the Port of Hel became a Kriegsmarine base. The expansion of the narrow-gauge railway was carried out by the Germans only to a limited extent. After the end of the war in Hel, sailors started to organise a new Navy base. In 1957, the Hel Port Command was established, on June 1st 1965 the Commander of the Navy subordinated the Port Command to the 9th Coastal Defence Fleet in terms of service.805

Starting from the 1960s, for safety reasons, the level crossing of the narrow-gauge-railway with the Polish State Railways line, together with the adjacent sidings, was dismantled, the second line that ran under the Polish State Railways ←337 | 338→tracks was also dismantled together with the adjacent sidings.806 At that time a narrow-gauge line leading to the transhipment ramp at the Hel railway station was also dismantled. The 1960s saw a further decline in the importance of part of the narrow-gauge railway and its replacement by other means of transport, which resulted in the elimination of some of the disused lines. During this period, the line leading to the warehouse on the cape of the Hel Peninsula was dismantled (a siding about 5 km long, dismantled around 1967) as well as the siding to the pre-war liquid fuel warehouse in Jurata (dismantled in the 1950s?).807

In the 1970s, the total length of the narrow-gauge railway network was 19,049 km.808 Currently, the narrow-gauge railway is used to transport torpedoes, ammunition and sea mines to the port from the warehouses and shelters (built in the 1930s) located in the area of the base. From the main narrow-gauge line, which forms a large loop, there are numerous branches leading to individual ammunition warehouses. On the main line there are four passing loops where trains can cross. Train operation is based on train radio communication by means of personal radiotelephones (where there is more than one train on the route). Rolling stock maintenance facilities provided in the port area include: a single-road locomotive depot (in 1968 the building of the former boiler house was adapted for this purpose) and a mechanical workshop, in which there is one narrow-gauge track intended for running repairs of the railway’s rolling stock. The old single road narrow-gauge locomotive depot was located in another place. Within the port area, narrow-gauge tracks reach the very shore of the port basin, where an EDK80 railway crane is used to load ammunition, torpedoes, sea mines and supplies to warships. The tracks on the quay are built with concrete slabs up to the level of rail heads, switches are not equipped with switch levers and are adjusted using a rod.

After the war the railway operated low power-output two-cylinder internal-combustion locomotives. It was not possible to determine what kind of locomotives they were and what company produced them, what is known is that they worked until the 1950s, when they were replaced by WLs40 type locomotives of Polish production. According to the account of the former railway transport manager of the Port Command, two types of these locomotives were used: pre-war Polish (Zakłady Ostrowieckie?) and those imported by the Germans during the war (a frame of such a locomotive was still in the port area in the seventies).809

←338 | 339→

Currently the railway has four WLs40 type diesel locomotives (one being cannibalised for spare parts). In the 1970s, the Hel military railway bought two WLs50 locomotives from one of the brickyards, but due to difficulties in entering them into the army stockists, they were probably cut up for scrap or handed over to the Polish State Railways. On 6th Sept. 1977 a WLs50 locomotive (Rolling Stock Repair Plant Poznań 1709/65) was transferred from the Hel military railway to the Polish State Railways Białośliwie Narrow Gauge railway and renumbered Ld1-2. It is possible that it was one of these locomotives.810 In 1991, a WP-11-40364 WLs40 locomotive (Rolling Stock Repair Plant Poznań 291/55) was transferred to Hel from the closed narrow-gauge railway KPW Gdynia Port Oksywie, together with the following flat wagons: WPPxWP-44-43272, 43274, 4325.811

In the 1950s and 1960s, the railway used four-wheeled wagons of limited capacity, they were of different designs (with and without bodysides, with and without springs). Part of the wagon fleet operated on the Hel military railway came from the French Maginot line.812 Similarly to the Forestry Railway in Lipa (600 mm), these wagons were brought to Hel by the Germans during the Second World War. Some of the wagons were handed over to Hel from the narrow-gauge railway in Toruń under the command of the Military Training Grounds, which was closed in the 1970s.813

Probably in the late 1950s, in order to increase the railway capacity, the old low-capacity wagon fleet was replaced with modernised HF type bogie flat wagons and coal wagons. These wagons were rebuilt from the standard HF type flat wagons/ coal wagons produced for the German field railways (Heeresfeldbahn) during the First World War. They were the basic design of German military railways, and proved to be such a simple and robust construction that they kept being produced in the interwar period and during the Second World War in many factories.814 The wagons with fixed walls were adapted for transporting people – they had brackets ←339 | 340→for attaching benches. Their reconstruction, which was carried out in the Lisewo narrow gauge depot (in the years 1958–1959) was reduced to the narrowing of the frames so that they would fit in the narrow gates of ammunition, torpedo and sea mine warehouses, that were to be entered by narrow-gauge wagons.

This modernisation included the construction of a practically new, almost completely welded frame and side walls. What remained as riveted were king-pins and the support for the circles supporting the wagon body on bogies. The wagon bogies were left without any structural changes – they are originally riveted, type HF (from the First World War).

Repairs of freight wagons were carried out by Koronowo, Żnin and Resko Locomotive depots on the basis of an agreement between the Ministry of National Defence and the Polish State Railways. The heavy general repairs of WLs40 locomotives of the Hel military railway were initially carried out by the Rolling Stock Repair Plant Nowy Sącz, and from the early 1980s by Zakłady Naprawcze Taboru i Sprzętu Brzesko (Motor Vehicle and Equipment repair Workshop in Brzesko). At the moment, the technical condition of the complete railway (main and additional tracks), wagon rolling stock and locomotives is much better than that of the public narrow gauge railways. Recently, a large part of the light rail infrastructure has been replaced by S42 heavy rail on concrete and wooden sleepers.

The locomotive WP-06-400-66 Ls150-? (Chrzanów?/62) was used to operate the standard-gauge siding branching from the Hel station. It was transferred to JW 5576 Siemirowice in 1990. In exchange for it, in 1990 the locomotive WP-01-400-32 Ls40-541 (Chrzanów 5229/60) was handed over from JW 1191 Darłowo. The WP-22-404-85 ED- K80/2 (Kirow Lepzig 92/70) rail-mounted crane is also used for transhipment works on the port quay.

Technical characteristics of narrow-gauge railway No. 582815

Year of construction: 193928

Railway length in the 1960s:

Total: 19.049

Construction: 17.194

Usable: 15.349

Maximum axle-load: 7 t

Maximum longitudinal incline: 2 ‰

Maximum speed: 5 km/h

28The military documentation mentions 1939 as the date of railway construction, the incorrect date most probably results from the fact that the railway was being extended until the outbreak of the Second World War.

←340 | 341→

Rolling stock list816

1. Standard-gauge rolling stock

←341 | 342→

2. Narrow-gauge locomotives

←342 | 343→

3. Narrow-gauge wagons

←343 | 344→

←344 | 345→

4. Inventory of rolling stock KPW Hel status 14/026 (1980s)

Type of rolling stockQuantity (pcs.)Status

Ls40 locomotive

1

WLs40 locomotive

4

EDK-80 crane

1

Platform w/t Px

48

60

6.1.5. Narrow-gauge 600 mm military railway Gdynia-Port Wojenny Oksywie, (military siding No. 581) JW 3643 Gdynia Port-Oksywie, siding No. 407

The railway was built in the inter-war period by the Navy in the area of the naval base at Kępa Oksywska, for the delivery of supplies from warehouses to the ←345 | 346→war port. It was a short railway line – 1796.80 m,817 most probably the shortest narrow-gauge line of the Polish Navy.

There is no precise information about the original pre-war rolling stock, it is only known that the railway operated bogie flat wagons with sideboards – ordered in the inter-war period in the Warsaw rolling stock factory Towarzystwo Akcyjne Władysław Gostyński. In the port area near the warehouses, a single-road locomotive depot was built. During the German occupation, the line was used to transport torpedoes from the warehouse to a torpedo depot built on stilts at a short distance from the shore, the track was led to it on a trestle bridge build on stilts.818

In 1940, the Locomotive Factory in Chrzanów built a four-wheel narrow-gauge internal combustion locomotive (Krenau No. 722/1940) ordered by Kriegsmarine Gotenhafen, the locomotive probably worked on a narrow-gauge railway in Oksywie during the German occupation.819

In the early 1950s, the WLs40-120 locomotive (Rolling Stock Repair Plant Poznań 120/53) was brought to Gdynia, probably from the Military Unit JW 3127 in Dęblin, while in 1955 another WLs40 machine (WLs40-291, Rolling Stock Repair Plant Poznań 291/55) was purchased from the factory.820 The line used 10 original, pre-war bogie flat wagons (with body-sides) built by the Wagon Construction Division of the Władysław Gostyński i Ska Joint Stock Company factory in Warsaw, as well as 10 four-wheeled flat wagons used for internal traffic.

The railway track was laid directly on the unreinforced quay and therefore was frequently washed and damaged by the waves and required constant laborious and costly repairs. At the end of the 1980s, it was decided to close the railway, the line was dismantled in 1989–90. The narrow-gauge rolling stock was transferred to the military railways in Świnoujście and Hel, and several wagons were cut up for scrap at Oksywie.

←346 | 347→

1. KPW Gdynia rolling stock list, list of rolling stock Status 14/025821

Type of rolling stockQuantity

Ls160

1

Ls40

1

WLs40

2

EDK-80 crane

1

Flat wagon n/a

1

Flat wagon Px

10

2. List of standard-gauge rolling stock (1970s)

Polish Armed Forces No., vehicle type, year of constructionWithdrawnRemarks

WP-01-40023 Ls40

Protocol 1/78 for JW 2186 Hajnówka

WP-22-40482 EDK80/1 1965

Pklm WP-30-41839 1942,1920?

+ withdrawal protocol JW 5431, No 388/95 of 30.11.94.

for the transport of gaseous materials

←347 | 348→

3. List of standard-gauge rolling stock

4. List of narrow-gauge locomotives

5. List of narrow-gauge rolling stock (1970s)

←348 | 349→

←349 | 350→

6.1.6 Military railway Świnoujście, military siding No. 881 (600 mm)

Along with the development of a fortification system on the Wolin and Uznam islands, the buildings of a military port, artillery batteries, ammunition and technical depots under construction were connected by a 600 mm narrow-gauge railway network. In 1937, a new artillery battery consisting of three barrack and an assault bunker was built near Przytór village (all were located 250 m apart), each of these was equipped with two firing points. To prevent the enemy from detecting the battery it was located in a wooded area 2 km from the coast. The decision was made to equip the battery with three 280 mm cannons, with the possibility of mounting 305 mm calibre guns.822 Auxiliary facilities were also built in the battery area: an ammunition warehouse, a power plant bunker (with two diesel-powered generators), a narrow-gauge railway locomotive depot and a command tower. The battery facilities were hermetic buildings adapted to operate in conditions of chemical contamination (they were equipped with double armoured doors and a system of gas locks). The described complex was surrounded by a barbed wire fence and the entrance to the battery led through gates protected by guardhouses. The 3 x 283 mm battery was completed at the end of 1938 and was named Göben in honour of a Prussian general August Karl von Göben, commander of a corps and then an army, who fought in the Franco-Prussian war of 1870–71,823 as well as, as it seems, to commemorate the extraordinary combat feats of the German cruiser Goeben during the First World War on the Mediterranean and Black Seas.

All battery objects were connected by a system of 600 mm narrow-gauge lines, this system was connected with the narrow-gauge lines of the neighbouring Werder (Ognica) ammunition and technical warehouse. A camouflaged concrete shelter covered with a wooden roof was provided – for the narrow-gauge vehicles between the locomotive depot building and the ammunition depot on one of the narrow-gauge sidings. A standard-gauge siding from the railway station at Przytór ended with a loading ramp with a narrow-gauge track next to it. Apart from the narrow-gauge system, each barrack and assault bunker had its own standard-gauge siding. These sections were used to transport cannons to the batteries, they were assembled with a railway crane.

←350 | 351→

In July 1938, three 283 mm SKL/45 cannons (made by F. Krupp A.G.) were mounted in the battery blocks. In winter 1938/39 a test shooting was carried out.824 The outbreak of the war changed the concept of the strategic use of the batteries, in 1940 all the cannons and technical devices of the battery were dismantled and transported to Norway to Tarva island.825

After the battery was dismantled, its buildings were incorporated in the ammunition and technical warehouse complex, to be used as residential rooms and warehouses for anti-aircraft artillery. According to reports by Polish forced labourers in Świnoujście at the turn of 1944/45, the railway siding of the battery was used to store the 194 mm railway guns (5 cannons) that was captured in France.826 After the war, the battery facilities were partly redeveloped by the army.

In the post-war period, the narrow-gauge railway of the former Göben battery together with the tracks in the ammunition and technical warehouse was under the responsibility of the War Port Headquarters in Świnoujście, it was used to transport ammunition, sea mines and supplies from warehouses to the war port area. A narrow-gauge line with a total length of 13.5 ~ 14 km was operated. The narrow-gauge railway transhipment station was located at the siding branching from the Świnoujście Przytór railway station. The technical base of the railway was located in the area of the military unit at Ognica, together with a passing loop with a short depot track that lead to the former German two-road timber framed locomotive depot.

On this line, WLs40 type locomotives were put into operation in the 1950s, as well as original Prussian HF field railways flat wagons,827 old-design four-wheeled flat wagons and special recessed flat wagons on HF type bogies for transporting sea mines, most probably built at the beginning of the 20th century on the request of the military railways in Świnoujście. These wagons are called miners by the workers and sailors who worked on the narrow-gauge railway. In 1991, the WLs40 locomotive and five bogie flat wagons produced by W. Gostynski were handed over to Świnoujście from the closed military railway at Oksywie.

Rolling stock list828

←351 | 352→

1. List of narrow-gauge locomotives

2. Standard-gauge rolling stock list

Polish Armed Forces No.Type of rolling stock

WP-06-40???

409Da-?

WP-24-40488

EDK80/1-130 Kirow 130/64

3. Wagon list

←352 | 353→

←353 | 354→

6.1.7 Military siding No. 181, JW 1540 Nowe Miasto and sidings for fuel re-pumping station in Piaseczno No. 101/183 (standard- and narrow-gauge)

At the beginning of the 1950s, a military airfield was built in Nowe Miasto nad Pilica. In 1951 the airport was linked with a narrow-gauge siding of a total length of 2375 m, which branched off from the Nowe Miasto nad Pilicą railway station (narrow-gauge line Piaseczno Miasto – Nowe Miasto nad Pilicą, 1000 mm gauge).829 Three passing loops, three dead-end tracks and a 15-metre-long side ←354 | 355→ramp were built on the siding at the loading points. The siding was intended mainly for the transport of coal and aviation fuel. From the very beginning of its existence it was operated by Polish State Railways locomotives, there was not a single army-owned locomotive that served the siding.

In 1958, in order to deliver aviation fuel to the airport, the Administration of Military Transport of the General Staff of the Polish Armed Forces purchased 16 bogie tank wagons type 3 Rw from Zastal in Zielona Góra. Under the agreement of 11th Aug. 1959, the tank wagons were incorporated into the Polish State Railways rolling stock lists, they were given Polish State Railways designation, Rdx series designation, P designation (private wagon), Ministry of National Defence designation and the following Polish State Railways inventory numbers 72070, 72071, 72072, 72073, 72074, 72075, 72076, 72077, 72078, 72079, 72080, 72081, 72082, 72083, 72084 and 72085. The wagons were assigned to Piaseczno station, fuel was transported on the Piaseczno Przeładunkowe – Nowe Miasto nad Pilicą section.830

Initially, fuel was transhipped from standard-gauge to narrow-gauge tank wagons at Piaseczno Przeładunkowe. Due to the fire hazard, around 1960831 the Military Fuel Station was built in Piaseczno, intended for gravity reloading of fuel from standard-gauge to narrow-gauge tank wagons. A standard-gauge siding No. 101, 0.5 km long, branching off from track No. 5 of the Piaseczno station, and a narrow gauge siding No. 183, 1.8 km long, branching off from the track system of the narrow gauge Piaseczno Przeładunkowe station was constructed to the area of the fuel re-pumping station. Both sidings ended with two dead-end tracks.

In 1970, the siding was overhauled by replacing 2456 m of rails. In 1974, as part of the investment plan, a fuel storage track was built in Nowe Miasto nad Pilicą.

In the 1980s, the old 3Rw tank wagons were taken out of service and replaced with new WRRdh class tank wagons. These were standard-gauge four-wheeled tank wagons together with frames placed on narrow gauge transporter wagons. At the beginning of the 1990s, the transport of fuel by rail to the airport in Nowe Miasto was discontinued. After the end of fuel transport, part of the tank wagons ←355 | 356→were transferred to the Koszalin railway. In the mid-1990s, the fuel re-pumping station, together with a narrow-gauge and standard-gauge siding was closed.

6.1.8 Military siding in Zegrze Pomorskie and fuel re-pumping point siding in Koszalin

In the 1950s, the construction of a military airport in Zegrze Pomorskie started. In order to transport large quantities of construction materials, it was decided to build a narrow-gauge siding from the Koszalin Wąsk. – Świelino railway line of the Pomorska KD system. A passenger halt was located in the village of Kurozwęcz, placed 200 m from the location of the later Kurozwęcz station in the direction of Świelino.

In 1951, a narrow-gauge siding, about 5,600 m long, was built along with the Kurozwęcz railway station, placed in a new location, with a track layout designed to accommodate several trains arriving at the siding. At that time the old passenger halt at Kurozwęcz was closed. Due to the very large quantities of materials brought to the airport under construction, a steam locomotive delegated from the Koszalińska KD depot was located at Kurozwęcz station in the 1950s.

After completion of the construction of the airport in Zegrze Pomorskie, the Kurozwęcz – Zegrze Pomorskie siding was used to deliver aviation fuel and other supplies to the airport. From the very beginning of its existence it was operated by Polish State Railways locomotives, no own locomotives were used on the siding.

In 1958, the Polish Armed Forces purchased 10 bogie tank wagons type 3 Rw type at Zastal in Zielona Góra, intended for the Zegrze Pomorskie airport. In 1959 these tank wagons, on the basis of an agreement between the PKP division in Szczecin and the Polish Armed Forces, were incorporated into the Polish State Railways rolling stock list, and their home station was Koszalin. With the beginning of air fuel transport in narrow-gauge tank-wagons on the Koszalin Wąsk. – Świelino line, fuel was transferred from standard-gauge to narrow-gauge tank wagons at a point located in the area of the Koszalin Wąsk. station. It was closed in 1979, along with the modernisation of the Koszalin Wąsk. station, as the line was adapted for the transport of standard-gauge wagons on narrow gauge transporters. A new Military Fuel Station transhipment point was built together with a narrow-gauge siding approximately 500 metres long, which branched off from the track layout of the Koszalin Wąsk. station in the vicinity of the locomotive depot. In the 1980s the old 3 Rw type tank wagons were replaced with Rgddyyhp class wagons – standard-gauge four-wheeled tank wagons with frames placed on narrow-gauge transporter wagons. Along with the suspension of transport on the Koszalin railway in 2002, the transport of fuel in tank wagons has also been stopped and the military sidings were withdrawn from operation.

←356 | 357→

6.1.9 Military siding JW 4420 No. 180 (Mława narrow-gauge railway)

A military siding No. 180 (600 mm gauge), 2100 m long, branched off from the Przasnysz railway station (Towarowa) of the narrow-gauge Mława Wąsk. – Maków Mazowiecki line and led to the Military Unit No. 3521832 in Przasnysz. The siding was probably built in 1953, it was commissioned for operation on the basis of the protocol dated 2nd Jan. 1953. The siding track was laid on gravel ballast, the route included two pipe culverts. The siding was operated by Polish State Railways freight train locomotives and did not have its own locomotive. Behind the station in Przasnysz (Towarowa) at a distance of about 140 meters behind the junction, there was a derailer protecting the entrance to the siding, the main siding track and a passing loop were built on the area of the military unit. The siding unloaded wagonloads of coal and petrol.

At the request of the Headquarters of Military Transport of the General Staff of the Polish Armed Forces in 1958 the Zaodrzańskie Zakłady Przemysłu Metalowego im. Marcelego Nowotki in Zielona Góra produced eight 2Rw type 600mm tank wagons designed to transport petrol to the siding of the air force unit (JW 3521) in Przasnysz. On 9th Feb. 1959, eight narrow-gauge tank wagons arrived at Warsaw Military District Mława from the factory.833

On 2nd June 1959, the liquid fuel transhipment point at Mława Wąsk. station was officially determined in the final part of the standard-gauge dead-end track No. 25 and narrow-gauge track No. 22.834

Under the agreement of 11th Sept. 1959, the tank wagons were incorporated into the Polish State Railways rolling stock lists, they were given Polish State Railways designation, Rdx series designation, P designation (private wagon), Ministry of National Defence designation and Polish State Railways inventory numbers 70226, 70227, 70228, 70229, 70230, 70231, 70232, 70233. The wagons were assigned to Mława, fuel was transported on the Mława Wąsk. – Przasnysz line.835 The JW 3521 handed over the wagons to Warsaw Military District Mława, which was confirmed in the protocol.836

←357 | 358→

The liquid fuel handling point was located at a distance of about 60 m from the main standard-gauge tracks and about 200 m from the buildings of the narrow-gauge station. During fuel re-pumping in the area protected by stop discs, the driving of shunting steam locomotives (both standard and narrow-gauge) was prohibited. One or two standard-gauge tank wagons were usually delivered to the transhipment point, which were re-pumped to 2 or 4 narrow-gauge tank wagons. The loading was carried out during daytime only, and a 50-tonne tank wagon was reloaded within 6 hours. Standard-gauge tank wagons on track No. 21 were placed at a distance of 20 m from the buffer stop, additionally they were secured from the side of the entrance with a D1 “stop” sign, placed at a distance of 50 m. The narrow-gauge track No. 22 was secured in a similar way. Fuel transfer works were carried out by JW 3521, which protected them also in terms of fire prevention. The handling was carried out by means of a pumping unit, which was delivered on a narrow-gauge flat wagon from JW 3521 in Przasnysz. Loaded wagons were sent in freight trains, barrier wagons were used because of the significant fire risk (from sparks from a steam locomotive).837 As in Warsaw Military District Mława there were no wagons fitted with buffers on their buffer beams, of a weight equal to that of a tank wagon, with the consent of ZKW SG WP, two 2Rw tank wagons filled with water were used as barrier wagons.838 Tanks wagons with fuel were sealed with the Polish State Railways and JW 3521 Przasnysz seals.839 Once loaded with fuel, the tank wagons were used to store the fuel on the premises of the military unit in Przasnysz, due to the lack of stationary tanks for unloading petrol.840

Periodic repairs of the 2Rw type tank wagons were carried out by the 1st class locomotive depot in Mława.

In 1964, Polish State Railways started re-gauging the Mława narrow gauge railway to 750 mm gauge. Together with the reconstruction of the Mława railway, the military siding in Przasnysz was also converted and modernised. On 29th Oct.1964, a committee organised by the Narrow-gauge Railways Management of the State Railway Management in Warsaw approved the military sidings No. ←358 | 359→180 after the reconstruction. The siding track in the Przasnysz Towarowa station, after changing its curve radius, was connected directly into the station track No. 10 by means of a switch No. 10.

At the end of the re-gauged track a buffer stop was built of sleepers, while the siding track at military warehouses was secured with a derailer. After a test ride with a Px48 steam locomotive, the Commission found the siding to be operational.

After re-gauging the Mława narrow gauge railway to 750 mm gauge, tank wagons no longer usable for transporting fuel were sold by Head of Military Transport at the Regional State Railway Management in Warsaw to the “Guzów” Sugar Factory. According to the protocol of the Management: According to the “statement of the representative of the Head of Military Transport Major Nowecki, these wagons were sold to the Guzów Sugar Factory after re-gauging the Mława Railway from a 600 mm gauge to 750 mm gauge.”841 The “Guzów” sugar factory used them to transport molasses on the Guzów – Szymanów line. In 1971, after the closure of the sugar beet narrow-gauge railway, four tank wagons were purchased by Kombinat Rolno-Spożywczy “Krochmalnia” in Niechcice to transport molasses on the narrow-gauge Goszkowice – Niechcice line. After also this railway was closed at the beginning of the 1990s, all the tank wagons were cut up for scrap.

In the 1980s, the army resigned from using the siding in Przasnysz, which was dismantled a few years later.

Technical specification of type 2Rw 600mm tank wagons842

Manufacturer“Zastal” Zielona Góra

Type of construction

2 Rw

Track gauge

600 mm

Load capacity

10 000 KG

Carrying capacity

10 500 KG

Deadweight

7000 KG

Length with buffer

8600 mm←359 | 360→

Chassis length

7540 mm

Wagon width

1440 mm

Max. wagon width

1850 mm

Max. wagon height

3100 mm

Capacity

115 hectolitre

Outer diameter of the tank

1500 mm

External length of the tank

6900 mm

Coating sheet thickness

6 mm

Bottom plate thickness

9 mm

Sheet metal material for the tank

St3s

Test pressure

3 atm.

Bottom emptying of the tank wagon

Ø 100

Type of material transported

Petrol

Grade material weight

0.7

Bogie wheelbase

950 mm

Spacing of bogie pivots

4700 mm

Number of axles

4

Wheel diameter

600 mm

Diameter / length of axle journal

9 75/125

Distance between the wheelset’s centre bearings

945 mm

Type of brake

Hand brake (4 axles)

Platform or brake box

Brake platform

Year of construction

1956

Smallest curve radius

R-37

Max. speed

30 km/h

←360 | 361→

List of 2Rw type tank wagons (600 mm)843

Polish State Railways No.Factory/year of construction

Rdx 70226

“Zastal” Zielona Góra, 1958

Rdx 70227

“Zastal” Zielona Góra, 1958

Rdx 70228

“Zastal” Zielona Góra, 1958

Rdx 70229

“Zastal” Zielona Góra, 1958

Rdx 70230

“Zastal” Zielona Góra, 1958

Rdx 70231

“Zastal” Zielona Góra, 1958

Rdx 70232

“Zastal” Zielona Góra, 1958

Rdx 70233

“Zastal” Zielona Góra, 1958

6.2. Military rolling stock

6.2.1 Locomotives

In the post-war period, the Polish Armed Forces used several dozen shunting locomotives for shunting work on military sidings and internal narrow-gauge railways. Due to the specific conditions of masking military objects against the observation of the enemy, already in the thirties military sidings and military railways were mostly motorised. The operation of steam locomotives in shunting operation was very uneconomical, the firing-up of a locomotive, which took several hours, and the need for constant supervision and keeping the locomotive under steam significantly increased coal consumption. In the operation of steam locomotives there was also no possibility of using one-man service, while restrictive supervision regulations and the necessity of periodic inspections and boiler repairs made it difficult to maintain steam traction.

The operation of steam locomotives in the area of ammunition, explosives and military fuel stations also posed a significant risk of fire and explosion from sparks escaping from a locomotive’s ashpan and chimney. Orders realised from the Ministry of Military Affairs budget since the mid-1930s included (with a few exceptions) purchases of locomotives and diesel generators (diesel ←361 | 362→locomotives with electric transmission). Since the 1930s, the German army has also been carrying out the modernisation programme of sappers’ troops and military railways. From the 1930s until 1945, large numbers of low-power narrow-gauge and standard-gauge shunting locomotives were operated in the Wehrmacht.

In the post-war period, Division IV of Military transport took over a significant number of German low-power internal combustion locomotives located on the territory of the former German military facilities. For these reasons, several dozen internal combustion locomotives were used on military sidings in the post-war period. Most of them were German four-wheeled Köf type internal combustion locomotives, their power output not exceeding 200 HP. The machines were of various designs, very many varieties, coming from numerous factories. Repairs of this rolling stock in 1940s and 1950s were concentrated in Rolling Stock Repair Plant Pruszków, where an internal combustion locomotive repair division was established. However, problems with overhauling of largely worn out and unusual locomotives as well as the lack of spare parts844 led to their withdrawal from the early 1960s.845

At the beginning of the 1950s, the Polish rolling stock industry started producing low-power diesel locomotives. At that time, the Polish Armed Forces started purchasing modern rolling stock in order to withdraw obsolete locomotive equipment.

In 1952, the Feliks Dzierżyński Locomotive Factory in Chrzanów started the production of the first post-war diesel locomotives type Ls40 (wheel arrangement 0-2-0, power output 40 HP). It was an adaptation of a pre-war Deutz diesel locomotive built under licensed in the 1930s in Fablok.846 A Polish-built diesel engine ←362 | 363→designed in the Central Construction Office of Combustion Engines in Łódź by a team of pre-war engineers of PZInż (State Engineering Works) was used.

In the same year the purchase of these vehicles for the purpose of operating military sidings started, in total, in the years 1952–1955 Division IV of Military transport purchased about 40 machines of this type.847 In the years 1952–1961, a total of 581 Ls40 type locomotives were built in the factory in Chrzanów (since 1975 WP-01 series).

In the same year, the purchase of these vehicles for the purpose of operating military sidings started, in total, in the years 1952–1955 Division IV of Military Transport purchased about 40 machines of this type846. In the years 1952–1961 a total of 581 Ls40 type locomotives were built in the factory in Chrzanów (since 1975 WP-01 series).

Technical characteristics of the Ls40847 type locomotive848

←363 | 364→
Year and author of the documentationFirst Locomotive Factory in Poland Chrzanów 1947.

Factory:

Locomotive Factory F. Dzierżyński Chrzanów

Track gauge:

1435 mm

Locomotive type:

Light shunting work for Polish State Railways and in industry.

Weight in an idle state:

15.8 t

Weight in working order:

16.0 t

Gearbox weight:

500 kg

Axle layout:

B

Number of powered axles:

2

Wheel diameter (for tyre thickness: 70 mm)

850 mm

Maximum speed:

11.35 km/h

Permanent tractive force:

2.99 t

Speed with permanent tractive force:

2.83 km/h

Smallest curve radius:

80 m

Number of gears:

4

Brake:

Manual lever

Buffer type:

Standard type buffer

Type of coupling:

Screw coupling

Maximum tensile force of the coupling:

850 kN

Sander:

Manual operation in both directions of travel

Lighting:

Electric 12V

Signal:

Exhaust gas whistle, additional car horn

Axle load:

8000 kg

Load per 1 m of track in working order:

T/m: 2.67 t

Engine type:

S-64 L or S-324 HL

Engine factory:

Wytwórnia Silników Wysokoprężnych Andrychów

Battery type:

6E7, acidic

Type of gearbox:

Mechanical 4-speed

Type of gearbox control:

Manual←364 | 365→

Gearbox type:

L-8 22/23

Gearbox factory:

Locomotive Factory F. Dzierżyński, Chrzanów

Type of clutch:

Dry friction clutch, single-disc, double-disc or triple-disc clutch

Fuel tank capacity:

110 kg

Oil capacity:

24 kg

Water capacity:

15 kg

Sand capacity:

68 kg

Front overhang (from front axle to bumper face)

1915 mm

Rear overhang (from rear axle to rear bumper face)

1585 mm

Wheelbase:

2500 mm

Length of locomotive with buffers

6000 mm

Height from the head of the rail to the top edge of the driver’s cab:

3010 mm

Height from rail head to bumper axis:

1055 mm

Maximum width:

2420 mm

List of military Ls40 type locomotives / WP-01849

←365 | 366→

←366 | 367→

←367 | 368→

←368 | 369→

Ls40 type locomotives not included in the above list, according to factory numbers850

Type and numberSeries, factory No., type, year of productionConduct of service

Ls40-13

Chrzanów 3085/52

Military Armament Works Grudziądz

Ls40-101

Chrzanów 4104/54

Gdynia Navy Shipyard ex the PKP Lo106

Ls40-108

Chrzanów 4111/5433

Warehouse of the Polish Armed Forces No. 19 Pruszków -> PMU Pruszków

Ls40-193

Chrzanów 4196/55

JW 4149 Przemyśl -> JW 2451 Wrocław

Ls40-221

Chrzanów 4536/56

SPW Gdańsk

Ls40-240

Chrzanów 4555/56

JW 1336 Wrocław Swojczyce

Ls40-278

Chrzanów 4593/56

JW 1951 Krzystkowice (ex JW Przemyśl? -> POW)

Ls40-279

Chrzanów 4594/56

SPW Szczecin

Ls40-309

Chrzanów 3578/57

SPW Poznań←369 | 370→

Ls40-425

Chrzanów 5184/?

Military Automotive Works no. 5 Poznań

Ls40-441

Chrzanów 5200/?

Gdynia Naval Shipyard “Obrońców Westerplatte”

Ls40-461

Chrzanów 5064/?

SPW?

33Attention! The locomotive did not receive a new military number.

At the beginning of 1960s the army also purchased individual vehicles of new rolling stock built in Fablok in Chrzanów. In 1960 a Ls60850 type locomotive was purchased851 (since 1975 series WP-02) and 2Ls75-09 (Chrzanów 5087/60)852 (since 1975 series WP-03), this machine worked in JW 4824 Stawy and then in JW 2451 Wrocław Popowice, in 4th-Divisional Equipment Storehouse.

In the years 1953–1960, for the operation of military 600 mm narrow-gauge railways, a dozen or so narrow-gauge diesel locomotives were purchased from Rolling Stock Repair Plant Poznań, type WLs40853 (since 1975, series WP-11).

The next purchase of Ls150 type shunting locomotives (axle layout 0-2-0, power 150 HP) (from 1975 WP-05 series) from Fablok and Zastal in Zielona Góra took place in the years 1959–1969, 26 locomotives of this type were purchased then to operate military sidings.

Technical data of Ls150 type locomotive manufactured by Fablok854

Year of construction1958

Designer

Factory Design Office Fablok-Chrzanów

Year of prototype construction:

1959

Manufacturer

Fablok since 1965 Zastal

Type

Ls150

Axle layout:

B (0-2-0)

Purpose

Light shunting work

Track gauge

1435 mm, special versions – 1524 mm

Weight in an idle state:

23.2 t

Weight in working order:

24.0 t

Axle load

12 t

Wheelbase:

2500 mm

Diameter of drive wheels

950 mm

Length of locomotive

6940 mm←370 | 371→

Width

2970 mm

Height

3210 mm

Smallest curve radius

50 m

Number of gears

4

Speed on individual gears

5,73; 9,42; 15,69; 25,68 km/h

Maximum speed on horizontal track

25.68 km/h

Highest tractive effort on a straight horizontal track

630

Maximum tractive effort at V=5.73 km/h

5043

Air brake

Self-acting and secondary

Driver’s valve for self-acting brake

Knorr system

Driver’s valve for secondary brake

Knorr system

Hand brake

screw

Type of coupling

Standard, screw coupling

Coupling strength

850 kN (85000 kG)

Suspension:

single leaf springs

Sander

air, operating in both directions of travel

Lighting:

electric

Sound signal

air whistle or siren

Driver’s cab heating

water from the internal combustion engine cooling system

Battery type and voltage

acidic – 24 V

Fuel system capacity

250 l

Water system capacity

120 l

Engine oil system capacity

65 l

Transmission oil system capacity

95 l

Stock of sand

200 kg

Engine

Type

“Wola” 2DSR-150

Engine

diesel system, standing, four-stroke, non-supercharged, 6-cylinder;

Nominal power output

150 KM

RPM

1500 rpm

Fuel consumption with +/- 10 %

180 g/KMh

Lubricant consumption

6 g/KMh 3 – 5

Lubrication

circulating under pressure

Cooling

water, forced circulation with pump

Start-up

by means of an electric starter

Weight of dry engine

1150 kg←371 | 372→

Gearbox

Gearbox type and factory

1P154, Fablok-Chrzanów

←372 | 373→

Type of gearbox

mechanical 4-speed, with continuously intermeshed gears

Control system

hydraulic-mechanical

Transmissible power

150 KM

Compressor

Type

S2P-75/100

Capacity with a +/- 10 % tolerance

750 l/min

Maximum torque – 3 %

1000 rpm

Lowest rpm speed

300 rpm

Normal compression pressure

8 atm.

Highest compression pressure in intermittent operation

9 atm.

Number of I/II degree cylinders

2/1

Diameter of I/II degree cylinders

92/85 mm

Piston stroke

70 mm

Weight of compressor without pulley

105 kg

Overall dimensions

approx. 500 X 530 X 760 mm

Two driver’s pulpits, engine tachometer, distance thermometers for measuring the temperature of water and oil in the engine, oil pressure gauge in the engine, oil pressure gauge in the gearbox, oil pressure gauge in the hydraulic control system, generator volt-amperometer, set of servicing tools, spare parts;

←373 | 374→

Inventory of military Ls150 type locomotives, WP-05 series855

←374 | 375→

←375 | 376→

←376 | 377→

In 1959, a diesel shunting locomotive type V-10-B (100 HP, series and number WP-04-40354)856 was imported from East Germany from the Babelsberg factory for operating in JW 2515 Kłaj.

In the years 1959–1970, 7 diesel locomotives with electric transmission of Ls300 type (power: 300 HP)857 were purchased from Fablok factory in Chrzanów. It was the most powerful class of military diesel locomotives,858 in 1975 it was renumbered WP-07 series. In total, in the years 1957–1970, 909 locomotives of this type were built in Fablok for the Polish State Railways, the industry and the Polish Armed Forces.

Technical data of Ls300 type locomotive manufactured by Fablok859

Year of construction1956

Designed

OBRPS Poznań/Factory Design Office Fablok-Chrzanów

Year of prototype construction:

1957

Manufacturer

Fablok Chrzanów

Type

Ls300

Polish State Railways class

SM30

Axle layout:

Bo’Bo’

Purpose

Light shunting work

Track gauge

1435 mm

Weight in an idle state:

34.8 t←377 | 378→

Weight in working order:

36 t

Load on 1 m of track

3.6 t

Spacing of bogie pivots

4660 mm

Wheel diameter

850 mm

Total length of locomotive with buffers

10140 mm

Maximum width of locomotive

3130 mm

Maximum height from the head of the rail

4300 mm

Main generator

DC, at 600 V, 367 A, 220 kW of continuous power, at 1500 rpm, type PABOM 186a spec

Auxiliary generator

DC, 48 V, power 4.5 kW

Traction motors

DC, serial, for 600/113 A, hourly output 60 kW, at 860 rpm, type LT-31 or Lka-310 with magnetic field attenuation hook up to 40 or 60 %

Battery pack

acidic, 300 Ah/48 V

Gear ratio

72/13 ~ 5,54

Compressor

VV/100/100 two-stage two-cylinder Knorr’s (capacity 700 l/min) or type S2P-11534 (capacity 1.7 m3/min)

Brake

Self-acting and secondary Knorr type brake, hand brake

Driver’s valve for self-acting brake

Knorr system

Driver’s valve secondary brake

Knorr system

Hand brake

screw

Type of coupling

Standard, screw coupling

Coupling strength

850 kN (85000 kG)←378 | 379→

Sander

air, operating in both directions of travel

Lighting:

electric

Sound signal

air horn

Speedometer

non-registering

Maximum speed

60 km/h

Continuous speed

28.7 km/h

Highest momentary tractive effort at wheel tyre, serial connection of traction motors, speed 5 km/h

7500 KG

Hourly tractive effort at wheel tyre, serial connection of traction motors, speed 14 km/h

3250 KG

Tractive effort at wheel tyre, speed 28.7 km/h

2050 KG

Highest tractive effort on a straight horizontal track

1010 t

Suspension

single coil springs and friction dampers

Connection to bogie

pivots with side slides

Diameter and length of axle pivot

130 mm X 217 mm

Smallest radius of curve

80 m

Fuel capacity

1000 kg

Water capacity

60 kg

Oil capacity

120 kg

Stock of sand

360 kg

Engine

Type

“Wola” 3DSVRa-300 or 350 diesel V-engine←379 | 380→

Manufacturer

Zakłady Mechaniczne im. M. Nowotki in Warsaw

Nominal power output

300 or 350 HP

RPM

1500 rpm

Lowest idle run RPM

500 rpm

Specific fuel consumption

180 g/KMh

Specific oil consumption below

10 g/KMh

Degree of compression

14 – 15

Number of cylinders

12

Cylinder diameter

150 mm

Piston stroke

180 mm

Cubic capacity

38.8 l

Power supply

12-section injection pump with multiband regulator

Lubrication

pressurised circulating pump with dry oil sump, oil pump, gear driven, three-section pump with one pumping section and two suction sections.

Cooling

water with forced circulation and one centrifugal water pump

Start-up

electric – main generator, current from batteries, starting voltage 48 V.35

Weight of dry engine

800 KG (V-Roka 300, without clutch and clutch disc, 1200 KG – (3DVSRa-350)

35It was also possible to start the engine with compressed air from a cylinder at a pressure of 90 atm.

←380 | 381→

List of military Ls300 type locomotives/ WP-07 series860

On military sidings with a significant turnover of wagons, where it was necessary to use a high-power locomotive, and on narrow-gauge railways (due to the lack of appropriate locomotives in the early 1950s) – steam locomotives were ←381 | 382→also operated. It should be emphasised that the production of high-power diesel locomotives was undertaken by the Polish rolling stock industry only in the sixties.

The Military Transport Unit of the 1st Army of the Polish Armed Forces used a number of captured standard-gauge steam locomotives to service the military troop trains, although the exact number is difficult to define. On the archival photo in an unpublished study by Marian Gembora Wojska Kolejowe (Railway Troops)861 one can see a German military steam locomotive BR 52 (Polish State Railways class Ty2), marked in an extremely interesting way – according to the rules of marking of Soviet military locomotives working in steam locomotive columns. On the engine driver’s cab the Polish national emblem and the Russian abbreviation BO CO 1 ABn (Military Transport of the 1st Polish Armed Forces) as well as the former German class and number 52-2580862 were painted with white paint. Most probably after the railway troops were disbanded after the end of the war, most of the locomotives were handed over to the Polish State Railways or SZD (СЖД – Soviet railways).

In the first post-war years, the Polish Armed Forces mostly operated steam locomotives taken or leased from Polish State Railways, among others, they were assigned to service armoured trains which were used in the “Wisła” operation in the Bieszczady Mountains.

Armoured trains of the Railway Security Services, part of the 1st Armoured Train Division.

The Railway Security Services trains (in Polish: Służby Ochrony Kolei) were hauled by the following steam locomotive classes: armoured train No. 1 “Szczecin” with an E class broad-gauge Russian steam locomotive (not armoured), armoured train No. 2 “Grom” with a German Tw1 class armoured locomotive, armoured train No. 3 “Huragan” with a German war design Ty2 class steam locomotive, later an Austrian Tw12 and armoured train No. 4 “Błyskawica” with an Austrian steam locomotive class Tr12 (unconfirmed).863 Unfortunately, there is no complete information on the steam traction then operated by the Polish Armed Forces on the territory of military sidings. Fragmented information dates back to the 1950s.

On the siding of the Military Motorisation Plant in Głowno, three standard-gauge steam locomotives were used: transferred from Polish State Railways864 – TKi100-4 (Borsig No. 10777/1920) (withdrawn from the inventory of Railway ←382 | 383→Technical Inspection on 22 November 1972), two “Ferrum” type industrial tank locomotives865 – TKh-5567 (Chrzanów No. 5567/1960, Sosnowiec boiler No. 18598/1960) purchased from Zdowskie Zakłady Przemysłu Bawełnianego866 and TKh-5376 (Chrzanów No. 5376/1959, Sosnowiec boiler No. 17632/1959 purchased from Zakłady Azotowe in Kędzierzyn.867

Four Prussian Tw1 class steam locomotives were also used on military sidings. Due to their low axle load, these machines were suitable for use on lightly laid military sidings. The table868 below shows data of the locomotives of this class leased by the Polish Armed Forces from Polish State Railways:

In the 1950s and 1960s, two steam TKi3 class locomotives were used on the siding of JW 4824 Stawy (both machines were converted to oil-firing for fire prevention reasons).869 A TKi3 steam locomotive was also used on the siding of JW 1530 Regny in the years 1955–1958, around 1958 it was handed over to another user.870

←383 | 384→

In 1953, Rolling Stock Repair Plant Nowy Sącz rebuilt two TKi3 steam locomotives (TKi3-17 and 106) to oil firing on the request of the Ministry of National Defence. After the reconstruction both steam locomotives were leased to the Ministry of National Defence. Both machines were removed from the Polish State Railways inventory in 1965. Most probably they operated on the siding of JW 4824 Stawy and JW 1530 Regny.

According to unconfirmed reports, in the same unit, Tr202 or Tr203 steam locomotives, earlier withdrawn from Polish State Railways, were used as stationary boilers as late as in the 1980s.

In 1950, the crew of the Fablok factory in Chrzanów renovated a four-wheeled German “Riesa” type steam locomotive for the Polish Armed Forces (Krenau No. 801/40) for a 600 mm gauge track.871 The locomotive worked on the military narrow-gauge railway in the training area in Mielec (JW 3682).

On the narrow-gauge railway of the Military Institute of Armament Technology in Zielonka (750 mm gauge), at the beginning of its operation, two narrow-gauge steam locomotives were used. These machines were leased from Polish State Railways, their data are presented in the table below:872

←384 | 385→

6.2.2 Wagon and special rolling stock

For internal transport of ammunition, explosives, weapons, military equipment and fuel in the area of military depots, factories and units, the army also operated a significant number of freight wagons (about 200 four-wheeled vans, 1 bogie van), more than 100 four wheeled flat wagons and 1 four-wheeled coal wagon.873

Several four-wheeled and bogie tank wagons as well as narrow-gauge tank wagons for fuel transport were also operated on military sidings. Standard-gauge wagons were mostly of old type, withdrawn by Polish State Railways and handed over to the army. On military depot sidings with particular fire hazard, 10 fire tenders were also used, coming from the withdrawn old Polish State Railways steam locomotives.874 On military narrow-gauge railways, wagon rolling stock – coal wagons and flat wagons – were used.

At the end of the 1950s, several WM5875 type diesel trolleys together with PWM5 type trailers were purchased at Rolling Stock Repair Plant Wrocław for permanent way works on military sidings and, most probably, one Lowa motor trolley was imported from East Germany.

←385 | 386→

The Headquarters of Military Transport also operated special rolling stock – armoured wagons, armoured trolleys, sanitary wagons, disinfection and bathing wagons, laundry wagons and kitchens, mechanical and carpenter’s workshops, tank wagons, flat wagons – ramps and heavy trailers for transporting standard-gauge wagons on roads. There were 19 mechanical workshop wagons,876 5 carpenter’s workshop wagons and 8 sanitary and pharmacy carriages made of standard 2nd class passenger carriages.877

A dozen or so of pre-war sanitary wagons of Italian origin from the 1920s were also in operation; these were withdrawn in the 1960s.

The military rolling stock included also steam locomotives and armoured wagons that formed armoured trains and German armoured trolleys, as well as a German diesel armoured train. Most of them were wagons armoured with concrete from German improvised armoured trains.

The diesel armoured train, exhibited in the Warsaw Railway Museum and three improvised armoured wagons have been preserved until the present day: a 1915 broad-gauge van rebuilt from a wagon of Canadian origin (preserved on a siding in Małaszewicze); improvised van converted from a Hungarian Ganz wagon (exhibited at the Higher Officer School of Armoured Forces in Poznań) and an improvised van converted from a former Canadian broad-gauge wagon from 1915 (converted to the standard-gauge 1435 mm), the wagon was marked in the post-war period with a Ministry of Defence series and number Kd 870020, an inscription “last maintenance WGW Żurawica 2.09.59” was also found on the wagon frame (withdrawn at JW 2189 Kazuń Nowy).

In the 1940s, the 1st Division of Railway Artillery in Darłowo also used a battery of railway guns.

In 1950, two type 1A passenger carriages were adapted in the Polish State Railways Mechanical Workshops No. 2 as the Central Mobile Clinic of the Polish Armed Forces. The wagons were marked Xxo series and Ministry of National Defence numbers 806975 and 806023.878

These wagons were used throughout the country to take small frame pictures of lungs of professional soldiers and their families.

At the beginning of the 1950s, four-wheeled vans were rebuilt into anti-aircraft defence wagons. A number of wagons designed for anti-aircraft defence of military transports during the war were rebuilt. Two types of wagons were ←386 | 387→made – with an open platform for setting machine guns or anti-aircraft guns. However, these wagons were withdrawn in the 1970s.

Railway cranes with a capacity of 10, 50 and 80 tons were used for reloading works in military ports (Hel, Gdynia, Świnoujście). There were 8 cranes in the inventory of the Polish Armed Forces.

A dozen or so military saloon cars were used for the Minister of National Defence and senior officers of the Polish Armed Forces. Most of them were rebuilt pre-war Polish Hecht type Pullman wagons manufactured by Lilpop, Rau & Loewenstein in Warsaw, from 1929–1930.

In the 1950s, a saloon car of German origin, Ashx 870290, was also in operation. This saloon car was intended for Marshal Marian Spychalski, part of the wagon included a purpose-built space with movable walls and a lift for transporting two cars: a passenger and an off-road (to carry out inspections of testing grounds). Four-wheeled and bogie passenger carriages provided by Polish State Railways were also operated. They were usually used for internal transport of workers and soldiers on military sidings.

6.2.3 Management of military rolling stock

The military rolling stock included all rail vehicles, both narrow-gauge and standard-gauge, which were in the inventory of the Polish Armed Forces. The Headquarters of Military Transport of the General Staff of the Polish Armed Forces was the central body supplying and the exclusive dispatcher of rolling stock which was used at military units, institutions, plants and enterprises. The management of military rolling stock was carried out by military institutions responsible for its maintenance and operation: Headquarters of Military Transport of the General Staff of the Polish Armed Forces, Military transport Branches of Military Districts, Navy and Land Forces and National Air Defence, Head of Military Transport (at particular Regional State Railway Management), using subordinate military transport bodies, and directly users (military units).

The Headquarters of the Military Transport Service was in charge of the rolling stock management in the army. The tasks of the Military transport were to keep records of the military rolling stock. The rolling stock management in relation to the users stationed on the territory of the relevant military district was managed by the Military transport Units of military districts with the exception of:

users subordinate to military and service commands, with organs of Headquarters of Military Transports,

central warehouse of military transport equipment in Przemyśl in terms of rolling stock and spare parts stored on its premises.

←387 | 388→

Management of rolling stock in military units (users) was carried out by professional soldiers from among the technical staff – full-time or appointed by order of the commander of the military unit, who took full legal and material responsibility in this respect. On military railways that had their own locomotives, the use of Polish State Railways locomotives was prohibited without the permission of the head of military transport.

The central organ supplying military units with rolling stock was, as already stated, the Headquarters of Military Transport of the General Staff of the Polish Armed Forces. The supplying was aimed supplementing the number of rolling stock units to the required levels and to replenish the stock of the central warehouse of military transport equipment. The acceptance of rolling stock from the suppliers (after acceptance by a Polish State Railways commissioner) was carried out by a representative of the transport service and a representative of the military unit (user) taking over the rolling stock for operation. The acceptance of the rolling stock at the supplier’s premises was carried out in accordance with the technical acceptance conditions and the conditions specified in the order. The transfer of rolling stock to the users took place via the central warehouse of military transport equipment or directly from the suppliers. The handover and collection of locomotives, rail-mounted cranes and special wagons took place in the presence of representatives of the interested Head of Military Transport. Steam locomotives, diesel locomotives and special wagons were escorted during transport. The handover of the rolling stock to the convoy commander took place on the basis of a protocol.

The authorisations to operate rail vehicles were issued by the competent chief of military transport at the user’s request. The locomotive crew consisted of two persons: a driver and a driver’s assistant in one shift. In military units with full-time shunting duties, operation of locomotives up to 200 HP could be performed by one person per shift (driver). Operation of trolleys consisted of one person per shift (driver). Only professional soldiers or civilian workers were employed as drivers to operate railway vehicles with a power output exceeding 200 HP. The activities included in the preventive maintenance were carried out by a full-time employee using the user’s technical facilities. The inter-repair inspections of diesel locomotives (P3) were carried out on the principles defined by the Polish State Railways Ministry of Communication Central Traction Administration in accordance with the agreement concluded between the Minister of Communication and the Minister of National Defence.

Rolling stock repairs were divided into two groups:

planned preventive repairs,

emergency (accident) repairs.

←388 | 389→

The repairs were carried out in accordance with the regulations in force on Polish State Railways. The rolling stock was sent to Rolling Stock Repair Plant workshops for repairs after a given number of kilometres has been reached. The repairs of the vehicles were supervised by the Ministry of Communication acceptance commissioners in accordance with the rules concerning the Polish State Railways rolling stock in accordance with item 3 of the Agreement concluded on 25th February 1957 between the Ministries of Communications, National Defence and Finance.

Rolling stock that was unsuitable for operation, i.e.: worn out or damaged, the repair of which was unprofitable, requiring a repair which was impossible to carry out due to the lack of spare parts, untypical or withdrawn at the order of the Head of the Headquarters of Military Transport, as well as spare parts and equipment which lost their usefulness completely or in part – were subject to transfer or scrapping against payment or free of charge in accordance with the binding order of the Minister of National Defence.

The scrapping of locomotives and special wagons was carried out only in the central warehouse of military transport equipment. Scrapping of other rolling stock units was carried out on the premises of the previous user. A team consisting of the representatives of the interested Polish Armed Forces units and the professional services of the Polish State Railways (if necessary Rolling Stock Repair Plant workshops) was set up to scrap a vehicle. The approved scrapping protocol was the basis for the given vehicle to be withdrawn from inventory. Withdrawal of the scrapped vehicle from the user’s inventory took place on the basis of an approved scrapping protocol and a document confirming the execution of the instructions of the Headquarters of Military Transport of the General Staff of the Polish Armed Forces.

In connection with the need to maintain the military rolling stock on sidings in continuous operation, also in the case of sending locomotives for periodic repairs to Rolling Stock Repair Plant workshops an important problem arose of maintaining reserve locomotives, to be used as required. This was the case for diesel locomotives – referred to in the regulations as replacement locomotives. Replacement diesel locomotives constituted a reserve of the head of the Headquarters of Military Transport, intended for temporary use in military units. The replacement diesel locomotives were grouped in the central warehouse of military transport equipment or in designated military units and remained in their permanent inventory, regardless of the place of temporary use by their temporary users. A decision on the withdrawal of replacement locomotives or their inclusion in the group was made by the Head of the Headquarters of Military Transport. The reception and transfer of replacement diesel locomotives between the interested parties took place on the premises of the central warehouse of railway and handling ←389 | 390→equipment. The work of the replacement diesel locomotive at the user’s site was carried out in accordance with the plan for the full-time operation of the locomotive. The user, after the end of the operational period of the replacement diesel locomotive, reported to the Headquarters of the Military Transport Service the readiness to hand over the locomotive to the central warehouse of Headquarters of Military Transport. A Head of Military Transport could use as replacement locomotives full-time locomotives operated by users in the subordinate area.

Another issue was the numbering scheme of military diesel locomotives, which apart from the “WP” (WP = Wojsko Polskie – Polish Armed Forces) marking and later the military number did not differ significantly from the locomotive painting scheme at Polish State Railways and industrial railways. Painting of passenger cars, except for sanitary and X-ray cars (red crosses on the side walls and car roof), except for military numbers did not differ from the Polish State Railways painting schemes for passenger vehicles. Freight wagons, e.g. narrow-gauge flat wagons (KPW Hel, KPW Gdynia, KPW Świnoujście) and standard-gauge wagons adapted to transport people were painted as follows: wagon chassis – black, wagon frame – green (khaki), white numbering. Frames of other freight wagons were painted in brown, just like in the case of Polish State Railways freight wagons. The arrangement of unified signs on military rolling stock was the same as on Polish State Railways rolling stock.

Until the early 1970s, military rolling stock was marked as follows: locomotives were marked with the characteristic lettering “WP”, class or type designation and serial number, freight wagons and passenger carriages were marked with six-digit Ministry of National Defence numbers beginning with 870.

The marking and numbering scheme of military rolling stock was introduced around 1970. The aim of the unified marking of railway rolling stock was to distinguish Polish State Railways rolling stock from that owned by the Ministry of National Defence and was used on internal tracks (military railway sidings), as well as on Polish State Railways network. The new marking system was modelled to some extent on the system used by Polish State Railways. The unified marking consisted of large and small letter symbols and digital symbols (number). The symbols of capital letters on the military rolling stock were separate from the Polish State Railways symbols. The symbols of lowercase letters were the same as the lowercase letters of the alphabet applied to Polish State Railways wagons. Before the symbols of capital letters, indicating the type of rolling stock, the capital letters WP (Polish Armed Forces) were placed. The numbering of military rolling stock included all types of rolling stock (locomotives, rail-mounted cranes, coaches, special wagons, freight wagons) without distinction of track gauge. Both narrow-gauge and standard-gauge rolling stock were included in ←390 | 391→the same numbering range. The rolling stock registration numbers (five-digit) were assigned by the Head of the Transport Service of the Headquarters of the Polish Armed Forces, according to the logbook of registration of transport equipment. Military numbers on railway vehicles were made in white.

Principles of marking and numbering of military rolling stock879

←391 | 392→

←392 | 393→

←393 | 394→

←394 | 395→

←395 | 396→

←396 | 397→

Example of marking of an Ls-40 locomotive: WP-01-37280

Example of the marking of a 4 wheeled standard-gauge van: WP-K

(corresponding lower case letters as for Polish State Railways) 28-38325

6.2.4 Road trailers for wagon transport

In the 1930s, the German companies Deutz, Hanomag, Faun, Carl Kaelble produced road tractors with a power output of 150–200 HP (the heaviest ballast tractors were also supplied for Deutsche Reichsbahn), equipped with pneumatic combined brake systems. The production of such vehicles was connected with the modernisation of artillery regiments and the intensive development programme of construction of tracked and half-track armoured transporters and artillery tractors.

The universal Faun 150 HP tractor could also be used as a shunting locomotive after changing wheels.880

Technical progress has soon made it possible to link road and rail transport. In 1933, the German railways introduced a new transport service, which was made possible by the rapid development of the German automotive industry. It was addressed to customers without railway sidings. It consisted of the transport of railway wagons on special road trailers transported directly to the customer by road tractors described above. This way of handling was called fahrbare Anschlusgleis (which can be translated as a mobile siding).881 The distance of the delivery of the wagons from a railway station in this system did not exceed several kilometres.882

The idea of road trailers was modelled on narrow-gauge transporters, Rollbock, used from the beginning of the century for the transport of standard gauge wagons on narrow gauge tracks.

The construction of the road trailer was developed by a higher councillor of the Reich Railway (Reichsbahnoberat) Culemeyer on the basis of the guidelines issued by the Central Office of Railway Machinery of the Reich (Reichsbahn-Zentralamt für Maschinenbau883). The first trolleys were built by the Gotha Wagon Factory (Gothaer Waggonfabrik) in 1933.884

←397 | 398→

Road trailers were used to transport four-wheel wagons, with each trailer supporting one of the wagon’s axles. One trolley generally had eight wheels connected in four pairs.885 All four axles were connected by rods, which forced the wheels to turn in an appropriate way when negotiating curves. Two rail beams were placed on the trailers, on which the wagon rested when it was placed on a front loading ramp. The trailers were connected with a telescopic bar. The distribution of the weight of the wagon over 16 wheels resulted in a single wheel load of 2.5 t, which was acceptable as a rear axle load of 3.75 t would be used for lorries. When transporting a wagon weighing 60 tons, there was a weight of 3.75 tons per wheel. The set of trailers was equipped with a pneumatic brake. The trailers were loaded using a front loading ramp. Technical tests and operation have shown that thanks to the uniform weight distribution, good springing and the use of special axles, wagons transported on roads in such a way did not damage road surfaces as much as heavy lorries. Trolleys with loaded wagons were able to travel even through corners roads with a curve radius of up to 7.5 m.886

This transport system was of great military importance, as it ensured fast reloading-free delivery of military materials from the nearest railway station to field bases and warehouses (without the need for time-consuming construction of railway sidings). In addition to transporting railway wagons, the trailers could also be used for road transport of heavy loads – e.g. armoured vehicles (evacuation of damaged equipment from the battlefield). Culemeyer’s trailers were used to transport heavy tanks and other armoured vehicles by road, especially for field repair bases. Thanks to good load distribution, it was possible to transport the heaviest tanks by road.

In Poland, road trailers appeared together with the German army during the preparations for the invasion on the USSR. Eugeniusz Mackiewicz, a railwayman from Sochaczew, has already mentioned how to use the trailers in an interesting way:

A few days before the attack on Russia, the Todt workers built a strange, short railway siding in front of our building with access from the front. We were wondering what it is for. We learned about it on the day the attack started. Low-floor trailers, which we saw for the first time, drove under the siding. They approached one by one, connected to the sidings track and transported tank wagons with petrol. It was an unusual sight from a distance, when a tank wagon train was driving on the road, carrying petrol to the airport in Bielice.887

←398 | 399→

At that time the Germans used the transport of tank wagons with airplane fuel to serve the field airport in Bielice, about 5 kilometres from Sochaczew (later a railway siding was connected to this airport). The transport of complete wagons eliminated the troublesome reloading and transport of loads. During the preparations for the invasion on the USSR, Germany built a large number of airports, bases and field warehouses in Poland, it can be assumed that not only the airport in Bielice was served by road trailers. However, there is no information on the other military use of such trailers.888

The post-war fate of this transport system in Poland is difficult to determine in view of the scarcity of archival material. A number of trailers was taken over by the Polish Armed Forces in the post-war period, it is not known whether they were used only for transporting railway wagons or also for transporting armoured vehicles. The only information confirming their military use in the post-war period is a brief description with a technical drawing contained in Instrukcja o stosowaniu urządzeń kolejowych dla potrzeb transportów wojskowych (Instructions on the use of railway equipment for military transport),889 in Chapter 5 Other railway equipment used in military transport we can read: “[…] Trailers for transporting wagons on the road […] are used only for the transport of standard four-wheel wagons on hard surface roads with tractors with combined brakes, to warehouses outside the railway area.”890

In Dziennik taryf i zarządzeń komunikacyjnych891 issued on 15th May 1950, there is an ordinance of the Minister of Communications on the use of road trailers for transporting railway wagons on roads.

This ordinance specifies a detailed description of trailers and how to use them. According to the provisions of this ordinance, the operation of such trailers was to be provided by the Polish Motor Transport Company (Państwowa Komunikacja Samochodwoa – PKS). Road ramps were to be maintained by PKS. This transport system was probably used until the mid-1950s.892

←399 | 400→

A trolley used for transporting railway wagons on roads. Source: Polish State Railways, Instrukcja o stosowaniu (1949)

Source: Polish State Railways, Instrukcja o stosowaniu (1949)

6.2.5 Narrow-gauge military tank wagons of the Ministry of National Defence

For fuel delivery and supplies for military airports in Nowe Miasto nad Pilicą and Zegrze Pomorskie and for the Military Unit in Przasnysz, a decision was made to build narrow-gauge sidings from Nowe Miasto n. Pilica, Kurozwęcz and Przasnysz stations. These units were located at the Grójecko-Wilanowska, Mławska and Koszalinska narrow-gauge railway lines.

For the delivery of aviation fuel to the military airports in Nowe Miasto and Zegrze Pomorskie, the Ministry of National Defence requested an order from Zaodrzańskie Zakłady Metalowe im. Marcela Nowotki in Zielona Góra ←400 | 401→(formerly German manufacturer of wagons Beuchelt & Co.) bogie 3 Rw type tank wagons. The design of such a wagon was developed in 1956 in the Company Construction Office “Zastal” in Zielona Góra and intended for the Polish Armed Forces. These wagons were of fully welded construction. Tank wagons were equipped with a manual brake operated from the brake platform, adapted to the highest speed of 60 km/h. In total, in the years 1958–1959, 26 tank wagons were built in Zastal, intended for the airport in Nowe Miasto (16 tank wagons) and in Zegrze Pomorskie (10 tank wagons). These wagons were incorporated into the Polish State Railways rolling stock in 1959 – the wagons serving the airport in Nowe Miasto were assigned to the Piaseczno station, while the wagons serving the airport in Zegrze Pomorskie were assigned to Koszalin station.

At the end of the seventies a new type of tank wagon for the 1000 mm track gauge was developed for the Polish Armed Forces. This tank consisted of a narrow-gauge transporter type Tw9 Tddyhp series on which a standard-gauge four-wheeled tank wagon with cut-off axle journals was placed. The new tank wagon, which was marked with the Rgddyyhp series, had a larger tank capacity and an air brake. In 1977–1985, 35 tank wagons of this type were built for military airports in Nowe Miasto and Zegrze Pomorskie.

By the end of the 1980s, all 3 Rw wagons had been taken out of service and replaced by new tanks on transporters. Old tank wagons were scrapped apart from a few abandoned at Piaseczno Miasto station and one, which was exhibited in the Branch of the Railway Museum in Gryfice.893

Technical data of 3Rw type tank wagon894

Manufacturer



Type of construction
“Zastal” Zielona Góra



3 Rw

Track gauge

1000 mm

Load capacity

10 t

Deadweight

7443 kG (7140)←401 | 402→

Length with bumpers

8644 mm

Chassis length

7600 mm

Wagon width

1500 mm

Max. wagon width

1850 mm

Max. wagon height

3132 mm (1.60)

Capacity

115 hectolitre

Outer diameter of the tank

1500 mm

External length of the tank

6900 mm

Side sheet thickness

6 mm

Bottom plate thickness

9 mm

Sheet metal material for the tank bottom

St3s

Test pressure

3 atm.

Bottom emptying of the tank wagon

Ø 100

Type of material transported

Petrol

Weight of the material grade

0.7

Bogie wheelbase

1150 mm (1.10)

Number of axles

4

Wheel diameter

600 mm (580 mm)

Diameter / length of axle pivot

9 75/125

Distance between the wheelset’s centres bearings

1345 mm

Spacing of bogie pivots

4700 mm

Type of brake

Hand brake

Platform or brake box

Brake platform

Year of construction

1956

Max. wagon speed

60 km/h

(Extreme axle spacing)

(5.85 m)

←402 | 403→

List of 3 Rw type tank wagons (1000 mm)895 Koszalin station

Piaseczno station

←403 | 404→

List of narrow-gauge tank wagons of Rgddyyhp, WP-WC-58 series built on Tddyyhp transporter wagons (35 vehicles)896

←404 | 405→

←405 | 406→

←406 | 407→

←407 | 408→

713 Ministry of National Defence, Przepisy o eksploatacji (1960), 5.

714 Ministry of National Defence, Przepisy o gospodarce (1975), 7.

715 On 17 January 1963 the Ministry of Transport issued regulation No. 21, on the principles for maintenance and operation of non-public railways used by the Ministry of National Defence and Ministry of Internal Affairs.

716 Ministry of National Defence, Przepisy o gospodarce (1975), 13.

717 Okólnik (1957).

718 The renovation of military sidings was mainly based on materials coming from surface replacement during renovation and modernisation of the Polish State Railways network.

719 Polish State Railways, D1, Przepisy budowy (1957), 50.

720 An example of these tendencies was the siding of the warehouse site in Regny and the siding of the “Pronit-Erg” Plastics Plant explosives production plant in Pionki, which had two independent transport tracks connected with the track system of the Pionki and Jedlnia railway stations.

721 The transports were carried out on the Sochaczew – Bielice section, according to a special schedule (seven train pairs) with four Kd wagons (freight wagons adapted for passenger transport) hauled by an SM03 locomotive.

722 Elaborated on the basis of: data by Military Transport Command as well as the Register of railway sidings, Warsaw Regional State Railway Management.

723 Listed on the basis of data from the Silesian Military District.

724 Prepared on the basis of records of military rolling stock of the Headquarters of the Military Transport Service of the General Quartermaster of the Polish Armed Forces, Headquarters of Military Transport, and documentation (vehicle logbook) of the individual military locomotives.

725 Prepared on the basis of the WLs40/50 Rolling Stock Repair Plant Poznań locomotive factory list.

The above list also requires some commentary: locomotives built for the battalions of railway troops – JW 2224 Darłowo, JW 2655 Września, and JW 1523 Bakończyce were probably used as construction equipment on makeshift construction and training narrow-gauge railways. About locomotives built for JW 3127 Dęblin and JW 6066 Ełk there is no information as for their intended use.

726 WLs40 stands for a narrow-gauge diesel locomotive with 40 HP power output or WLs50 with 50 HP power output, depending on the type of S64L or S-324 HL engine used. Prepared on the basis of: Rolling Stock Repair Plant Poznań, Technical and operating documentation for the WLs40/50 diesel locomotive and Andrychów Diesel Engine Factory, Operating instructions for the S-64L and s-324HL engines.

727 At the end of the 1950s the name of the Field Artillery Research Centre was changed to the Ordnance Research Centre, and in the 1960s the name was changed once again to the Military Institute of Armament Technology.

728 The embankment of this railway (running from the area of the institute parallel to the later railway track) was levelled during land redevelopment for the allotments.

729 Account dated 23rd Oct. 2006 of Major Jerzy Zieliński, retired head of the Internal Transport and Railway Section.

730 The siding ran in the middle of its length next to the Rembertów – Zielonka railway line.

731 Head of Military Transport at the Polish State Railways, Plan schematyczny nr 127 (1959), and Head of Military Transport at the Polish State Railways, Plan schematyczny nr 182.

732 This locomotive depot was built in the 1950s.

733 According to Major Jerzy Zieliński’s account of 23rd Oct. 2006, it was a narrow-gauge railway locomotive depot from the interwar period, the shed housed two roads (pits) as well as a forge and a workshop equipped with a grinding machine and a lathe.

734 Head of Military Transport at the Polish State Railways, Plan schematyczny nr 182.

735 In accordance with the amendment of 27th Dec. 1962 to the Technical Regulation, the traffic lights have been removed and the crossings were equipped with gates (blocking, as appropriate, the track or the road) operated by the driver or shunter.

736 Regional State Railway Management in Warsaw, Regulamin obsługi (1962), 2.

737 Regional State Railway Management in Warsaw, Regulamin obsługi (1962), 2–5.

738 Head of Military Transport at the Polish State Railways, Plan schematyczny nr 182 and Regional State Railway Management in Warsaw, Akta kolei.

739 Regional State Railway Management in Warsaw, Regulamin obsługi (1962), 4.

740 Regional State Railway Management in Warsaw, Regulamin obsługi (1962), 2.

741 The bridge at km 17,600 was located on the Łęka – Pustelnik section, which was closed down in October 1963.

742 Regional State Railway Management in Warsaw, Regulamin obsługi (1962), 6.

743 Regional State Railway Management in Warsaw, Regulamin obsługi (1962), 6.

744 The bunkers were designed for the observers and measurement engineers during shooting.

745 This line was not only intended for train communication, it was also used for communication between the institute’s directional officer and arms research posts and guards of the firing range protection.

746 Regional State Railway Management in Warsaw, Regulamin obsługi (1962), 7.

747 Account of 7th Sept. 2006 by Colonel Wacław Kuzak, former Head of the Field Department of the Military Institute of Armament Technology in Zielonka.

748 The technical condition of the bridges was unsatisfactory already in 1961, after some time their spans were replaced with steel ones.

749 Regional State Railway Management in Warsaw, Akta kolei.

750 Przepisy ruchu (1948).

751 Regional State Railway Management in Warsaw, Protokół z komisji (1960).

752 Regional State Railway Management in Warsaw, Protokół okresowego badania (1964).

753 Accounts dated 23rd Oct. 2006 of Major Jerzy Zieliński, retired head of the Internal Transport and Railway Section.

754 The military railway in Zielonka was the only non-public use line in the area of the Regional State Railway Management in Warsaw, where internal passenger transport was officially carried out.

755 Protocol of 29th April 1970.

756 Report of 7th Sept. 2006 by Colonel Wacław Kuzak, retired head of the Field Department of the Military Institute of Armament Technology in Zielonka.

757 Accounts dated 23rd Oct. 2006 of Major Jerzy Zieliński, retired head of the Internal Transport and Railway Section.

758 Report of 7th Sept. 2006 by Colonel Wacław Kuzak, retired head of the Field Department of the Military Institute of Armament Technology in Zielonka.

759 Regional State Railway Management in Warsaw, Regulamin obsługi (1962), 8.

760 Regional State Railway Management in Warsaw, Protokół z komisji (1960).

761 Regional State Railway Management in Warsaw, Regulamin obsługi (1962),10.

762 In the mid-1960s, the number of full-time employees was increased to eight.

763 During the annual railway inspections carried out by the Regional State Railway Management in Warsaw, Narrow-gauge Railways Management, attention was paid to the need to improve safety and the provision of basic signalling devices.

764 The Commission proposed to add on the existing line another circuit designed exclusively for train control communication and to provide sockets for train guard on each passing loop and junction.

765 Regional State Railway Management in Warsaw, Protokół z komisji (1960).

766 Regional State Railway Management in Warsaw, Protokół z komisji (1960).

767 Accounts dated 23rd Oct. 2006 of Major Jerzy Zieliński, retired head of the Internal Transport and Railway Section.

768 Regional State Railway Management in Warsaw, Regulamin obsługi (1962), 10 – amendment of 5th Oct. 1963.

769 Protocol on control of military railways of 8th Aug. 1972.

770 Official note on the acceptance of bridges after renovation.

771 The siding was also used by the Military Electronic Works (Wojskowe Zakłady Elektroniczne) on the basis of shared use.

772 Accounts dated 23rd Oct. 2006 of Major Jerzy Zieliński, retired head of the Internal Transport and Railway Section.

773 Before the end loading platform was built, the narrow-gauge rolling stock sent for repair was loaded by means of a standard-gauge railway crane leased from Polish State Railways

774 Accounts dated 23rd Oct. 2006 of Major Jerzy Zieliński, retired head of the Internal Transport and Railway Section.

775 Accounts dated 23rd Oct. 2006 of Major Jerzy Zieliński.

776 Accounts dated 23rd Oct. 2006 of Major Jerzy Zieliński.

777 Accounts dated 23rd Oct. 2006 of Major Jerzy Zieliński.

778 Withdrawal date from the Polish State Railways lists based on the Inventory book of Polish State Railways narrow-gauge steam locomotives, the steam locomotive was cut for scrap at narrow gauge depot Warszawa Stalowa in 1966 or 1967, (report by Mr. Jan Szponder).

779 Account dated 23rd Oct. 2006 of Major Jerzy Zieliński, retired head of the Internal Transport and Railway Section.

780 Colonel Stefan Stern, the deputy commander of the Institute for Technology, has given the subject of this work.

781 Account dated 7th Sept. 2006 of Col. Wacław Kuzak, retired head of the Field Department of the Military Institute of Armament Technology in Zielonka.

782 Account dated 23rd Oct. 2006 of Major Jerzy Zieliński, retired head of the Internal Transport and Railway Section.

783 It was the last wagon of this type in the inventory of the Polish Armed Forces. In the 1950s, box vans were rebuilt into anti-aircraft defence wagons, which were used for anti-aircraft defence of military transports. Such vehicles were withdrawn in the 1970s.

784 Witkowski (1974), 82.

785 Witkowski (1974), 85.

786 Witkowski (1974), 86.

787 Witkowski (1974), 87.

788 Witkowski (1974), 85.

789 Witkowski (1974), 105.

790 Witkowski (1974), 96.

791 Witkowski (1974), 96.

792 Labuda, (2002).

793 Labuda, (2002), 37.

794 Labuda, (2002), 37.

795 Labuda, (2002), 37–38.

796 Eisenbahndirektion Danzig plan of the Hel station from 1938, collections of the State Archive in Gdańsk, Gdynia branch, Act Ref. No. 1081, 2/730, in: Labuda, (2002).

797 Witkowski (1974), 97.

798 Witkowski reported that the military railway on Hel was of 1000 mm gauge, this information is incorrect, because the rolling stock was factory built for 600 mm track. The mistake was probably a result of incorrect interpretation of data from the technical design of the railway made by KMW, in: Witkowski (1974), 97.

799 The natural masking of the Hel Fortified Region was given great importance, even the Tp3 class steam locomotives of the Reda – Hel line, from the Puck locomotive depot, were converted to oil-burning in order to minimize the risk of fire.

800 Witkowski (1974), 97.

801 Witkowski (1974), 97.

802 Reprinting of an article – eng. J. Borowiec from »Mechanical Inspection«, “Stalowe Szlaki” No. 10/October 1990.

803 Witkowski (1974), 96 and a report by the former transport manager of the Navy Harbour Cmmand Hel, lieutenant commander Stefaniak from the Navy Logistics Administration in Gdynia.

804 Witkowski (1974), 97.

805 On the basis of materials of the Navy Harbour Command Hel.

806 Labuda, (2002).

807 Report of the former transport manager of Navy Harbour Command Hel, lieutenant commander Stefaniak from the Gdynia Navy Logistics Administration.

808 Based on data from the Gdynia Navy Logistics Administration.

809 Report of the former transport manager of Navy Harbour Command Hel, lieutenant commander Stefaniak from the Gdynia Navy Logistics Administration.

810 Polish State Railways, Narrow-gauge Locomotive Depot in Białośliwie, Księga ewidencyjna (1963).

811 Military fleet inventory of the Gdynia Navy Logistics Administration.

812 Report of the former transport manager of Navy Harbour Command Hel, lieutenant commander Stefaniak from the Gdynia Navy Logistics Administration.

813 Ibid.

814 In Poland in the interwar period wagons of this type were built on the basis of the German documentation by the Joint Stock Company “WAGON” Wagon Factory in Ostrów Wielkopolski. In the interwar period, a small batch of wagons of this type was built in Ostrów Wielkopolski for the units of Railway Sappers of the Polish Armed Forces.

815 Based on data from the Gdynia Navy Logistics Administration.

816 The rolling stock registers were compiled on the basis of data of the Gdynia Navy Logistics Administration, Headquarters of Military Transport in Gdańsk, and the Admnistration of Logistics of the Ministry of National Defence in Warsaw, the Polish State Railways lists and the factory list of diesel locomotives WLs40/50 Rolling Stock Repair Plant Poznań.

817 Navy Logistics Administration Gdynia, Characteristics of military.

818 Report of the former transport manager of KPW Hel, lieutenant commander Stefaniak from the Gdynia Navy Logistics Administration.

819 Szponder, Tucholski, Lista (unpublished).

820 Rolling Stock Repair Plant Poznań, Lista fabryczna WLs40/50.

821 The rolling stock registers were compiled on the basis of data of the Gdynia Navy Logistics Administration, Headquarters of Military Transport in Gdańsk, and the Administration of Logistics of the Ministry of National Defence in Warsaw, the Polish State Railways rolling stock list and the Rolling Stock Repair Plant Poznań, Lista fabryczna WLs40/50.

822 Laskowski, Wroński, (1999), 66.

823 Laskowski, Wroński, (1999), 76.

824 Laskowski, Wroński, (1999), 73.

825 Laskowski, Wroński, (1999), 76.

826 Laskowski, Wroński, (1999), 76.

827 Including Bochumer Verein factory plates.

828 The rolling stock lists are based on data of the Gdynia Navy Logistics Administration, Headquarters of Military Transport in Gdańsk, and the Administration of Logistics of the Ministry of National Defence in Warsaw, the Polish State Railways rolling stock list and the factory list of diesel locomotives WLs40/50 built by Rolling Stock Repair Plant Poznań.

829 Karta… No. 181 – WWL.

830 Agreement on inclusion of Ministry of National Defence tank wagons in the Polish State Railways stock dated 11th Aug. 1959.

831 The date of construction of the siding has not been confirmed, its technical design was made on 29th Oct. 1960, by Biuro Projektów CPN “Naftoprojekt” (CPN “Naftoprojekt” Design Office).

832 Unit number changed to JW 4420.

833 Protocol of 9th Feb. 1959.

834 Protocol of 2nd June 1959.

835 Agreement of 28th Sept. 1959.

836 Site acceptance certificate of 9th Sept. 1959.

837 Barrier wagons – these are empty freight wagons included in a train set to separate wagons with dangerous goods from the rest of the train.

838 According to the letter of 29th July 1960. there were three tank wagons on the siding No. 180 in Przasnysz, which were intended to be used as protection for the 2Rw type tank wagons. However, due to their lightweight chassis construction and lighter weight, they could not be used as a barrier wagons. After technical inspections, they were to be used for transporting fuel.

839 Protocol of 2nd June 1959.

840 Letter of 22nd Dec. 1959.

841 Written annotation dated 24th October 1974.

842 Technical data on the basis of Technical Documentation of the 2Rw type petrol tank wagons (Central Construction Office of the Rolling Stock Industry – Poznań).

843 Ministry of Transport, Central Management of Narrow-gauge Railways, Księga inwentarzowa wagonów600 mm.

844 During periodic repairs of locomotives in Rolling Stock Repair Plant Pruszków one locomotive was often assembled from several vehicles intended for disposal.

845 The lack of technical documents in the archives dating back to the 1940s and 1950s and concerning military rolling stock made it extremely difficult today to establish the technical and evidentiary data of military rolling stock from that period. The author was only able to determine on the basis of the preserved original operating documents the data of the former German military diesel locomotive Lr 398 (with Saurer engine no. 255038), handed over on 18 July 1955 by the Polish State Railways (after repairs in Rolling Stock Repair Plant Pruszków) to the siding of JW 4824 in Stawy.

846 The start of production of Ls40 locomotives was possible thanks to the experience in the construction of diesel locomotives gained in the inter-war period and during the German occupation. Before the war production was carried out in Chrzanów in cooperation with the German plant Humbold-Deutz Motoren AG-Köln. The design of the Ls40 locomotive was based on the pre-war German standard gauge OMZ 122 40 HP shunting locomotive. In the inter-war period a locomotive of this type was built in Fablok on the basis of German documentation and designated Fablok 8DL type.

847 Inventory materials of military rolling stock of the Headquarters of Military Transport of the Headquarters of the Polish Armed Forces and the Headquarters of Military Transport.

848 Prepared on the basis of: Fablok-Chrzanów, Dokumentacja… Ls40 and the Ministry of National Defence, Head of Commission 48/67, Instrukcja budowy (1969).

849 Prepared on the basis of military fleet inventory materials of the Headquarters of the Military Transport Service of the Polish Armed Forces Headquarters, Headquarters of Military Transport and documentation of individual military locomotives.

850 Based on the register of periodic repairs of Ls40 locomotives in Rolling Stock Repair Plant Wrocław.

851 Ls60 type vehicles were a development of a n Ls40 locomotive.

852 The construction of the 2Ls75 locomotive (powered by S-324Hl 75 HP engine) was a predecessor of Ls150 type vehicles.

853 The exact number of locomotives is not known due to the lack of a complete factory list of locomotives manufactured by Rolling Stock Repair Plant Poznań.

854 Based on: Fablok-Chrzanów, DokumentacjaLs l50 and the Ministry of National Defence, Head of commission 40/66, Instrukcja budowy i eksploatacji lokomotywy spalinowej Ls 150 (SM03) (Instructions for the construction and operation of a diesel locomotive Ls150 (SM03)), Warsaw 1967.

855 Prepared on the basis of military fleet inventory materials of the Headquarters of Military Transport of the Polish Armed Forces Headquarters, Headquarters of Military Transport and documentation of individual military locomotives.

856 Prepared on the basis: Księga ewidencyjna.

857 Prepared on the basis of military fleet inventory materials of the Headquarters of Military Transport of the Polish Armed Forces Headquarters, Headquarters of Military Transport and documentation of individual military locomotives.

858 The most powerful diesel locomotive (600 HP) operated by the Polish Armed Forces was the Hungarian diesel locomotive SM41-1325 (Ganz Mavag No. 1325/68) purchased by the Polish Armed Forces from CPN Łódź and operated on the siding of JW 2915 Dolaszewo, it was scrapped around 2004.

859 Technical characteristics based on: Walbiner (1966) and Fablok-Chrzanów CharakterystykaLs300.

860 Prepared on the basis of military fleet inventory materials of the Headquarters of Military Transport of the Polish Armed Forces Headquarters, Headquarters of Military Transport and documentation of individual military locomotives.

861 Gembora, Ref. No. 1138, 54.

862 Gembora, Ref. No. 1138, 54.

863 http://www.pibwl.republika.pl [accessed June 15, 2006].

864 Data based on: Railway Inspectorate of Technical Supervision in Łódź Księga ewidencyjna.

865 Data based on: Railway Inspectorate of Technical Supervision in Łódź Księga ewidencyjna.

866 Ibid.

867 After withdrawal the locomotive was plinthed at the Łódź Widzew railway station.

868 Prepared on the basis of: Polish State Railways General Management, Central Traction Management, Księga inwentarzowa parowozów.

869 An ex-German water crane remained on the area of the warehouse in Stawy.

870 According to the information obtained from Mr. Tomasz Roszak.

871 On the basis of correspondence from the Fablok factory in Chrzanów regarding the approval of the Krenau steam locomotive boiler No. 801 (in the author’s collection).

872 Prepared on the basis of: Ministry of Transport, Central Management of Narrow-gauge Railways, Księga inwentarzowa parowozów wąskotorowych (1948) (Polish State Railways Narrow-gauge Railways Management Central State Railway in Warsaw), files of the military siding of Military Institute of Armament Technology in Zielonka (in the author’s collection).

873 MON SSKW GKWP, Ewidencja taboru kolejowego MoND.

874 List of wagon rolling stock of Ministry of National Defence (old numbering).

875 Only two military trolleys of this type were confirmed: WM5 (Rolling Stock Repair Plant Wrocław ?/57) in JW 2186 Hajnówka from 29th Aug. 1957, incomplete 30th April 1996 and WM5-051 which was in the inventory of JW 2902 until 22nd Feb. 1971.

876 All wagons were equipped with typical military field workshop sets.

877 MON SSKW GKWP, Ewidencja taboru kolejowego Ministry of National Defence.

878 On the basis of the inventory of military rolling stock of SSKW GKWP.

879 Ministry of National Defence, Przepisy o gospodarce (1975), 126–130.

880 Kucharski, Drogowy transport, 1.

881 Kucharski, Drogowy transport, 1.

882 Kucharski, Drogowy transport, 1.

883 Das “fahrbare Anschlusgleis” in: Verkherstechnik (1933). Also in the article Transport (1955) an information is contained that it was Culemeyer who constructed the wagon trailers

884 Kucharski, Drogowy transport, 1.

885 Verkehrstechnik (1935), there is a photo of the most likely twelve-wheeled trolleys.

886 Cholewa (1949), 149.

887 Macewicz (2000), 64.

888 Kucharski Drogowy transport, 2.

889 Polish State Railways, Instrukcja o stosowaniu (1949).

890 Polish State Railways, Instrukcja o stosowaniu (1949), 73.

891 Dziennik (1950).

892 Kucharski, Drogowy transport, 1.

893 On the narrow-gauge railways of the Warsaw Administration 3 tank wagons (1 at Warsaw Military District Nasielsk, 2 at Warsaw Military District Rogów) with dismantled bogies were set up as fire protection tanks for water and oil storage facilities. In the building of the locomotive depot in Koszalin, a 3 Rw type tank wagon with no bogies was also installed.

894 Technical data on the basis: Central Construction Office of the Rolling Stock Industry – Poznań, Dokumentacja techniczna … 3R.

895 Ministry of Transport, Central Management of Narrow-gauge Railways, Księga inwentarzowa wagonów… 1000 mm.

896 Please note that the military numbers coincide with the flat wagon numbers WP-WPPx-44 KPW Hel (600 mm). On the basis: Headquarters of the Military Transport Service of the Headquarters of the Polish Armed Forces, Listing and Narrow-gauge Railways Management Warszawa.