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River Flowing North

Migration Generating Geographies and International Irregular Migrations

Edited By Suat KOLUKIRIK and Elif Gün

The phenomenon of migration, whose boundaries cannot be drawn, is not only a process that needs to be resolved economically, but also a multidimensional phenomenon that encompasses many areas in political, cultural, legal and social terms. Although the people built nations for themselves, set borders and established a relationship of belonging on certain lands, migration has always existed and continues to exist as a reality that pushes the limits of countries. In particular, the flows and possibilities that globalization has brought have enabled the phenomenon of migration to gain a different dimension and to be practiced and experienced in different ways in different parts of the world. Today, migration has ceased to be a phenomenon that affects only the countries that receive and produce migrants and that are located on the migration routes, and has become a series of events that occur on a transnational plane and await solutions. Now, the phenomenon of migration has become a problem of humanity, not a problem of individual communities and nations, and has become an important issue that needs to be approached on an international and global level.

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Refugee-focused NGOs in Turkey: Difficulties and Expectations: (Asuman Özgür KEYSAN)

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Asuman Özgür KEYSAN

Refugee-focused NGOs in Turkey: Difficulties and Expectations

1 Introduction

Since April 2011, approximately 5 million people have fled Syria in response to the war against the regime and emigrated to many other countries, most notably within the Middle East (DGMM 2020). The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) has stated that the world is facing the most severe refugee crisis in the last 20 years. Turkey, which has been both a transit and a destination country for migrants since the 1990s, has faced the greatest mass migration movement due to the civil war in Syria. With the increase in conflict and violence in Syria, the number of Syrian migrants registered in Turkey reached 3.8 million as of 2020, and 110,000 of those individuals reside in camps (DGMM 2020).

NGOs have been the key actors dealing with the problems of the refugees, accompanied by state institutions and international organizations (Douglas et al. 2017, p.34; Nicholls 2013; Eastman 2012). The number of registered NGOs in Turkey tackling refugee issues has been steadily increasing since 2011 (Aras and Duman 2017, p.480). Among them, the NGOs that were already in the field before the Syrian conflict have maintained their programs. New ones have also been recently established to address these issues, while some other pre-existing organizations have re-oriented their activities toward refugees. With the continuation of the conflict, these NGOs have begun to expand their roles and have developed more...

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