Show Less
Restricted access

River Flowing North

Migration Generating Geographies and International Irregular Migrations

Edited By Suat KOLUKIRIK and Elif Gün

The phenomenon of migration, whose boundaries cannot be drawn, is not only a process that needs to be resolved economically, but also a multidimensional phenomenon that encompasses many areas in political, cultural, legal and social terms. Although the people built nations for themselves, set borders and established a relationship of belonging on certain lands, migration has always existed and continues to exist as a reality that pushes the limits of countries. In particular, the flows and possibilities that globalization has brought have enabled the phenomenon of migration to gain a different dimension and to be practiced and experienced in different ways in different parts of the world. Today, migration has ceased to be a phenomenon that affects only the countries that receive and produce migrants and that are located on the migration routes, and has become a series of events that occur on a transnational plane and await solutions. Now, the phenomenon of migration has become a problem of humanity, not a problem of individual communities and nations, and has become an important issue that needs to be approached on an international and global level.

Show Summary Details
Restricted access

From the Netherlands to Karaman: Remigration, Definite Return and Social Adaptation: (Cevdet YILMAZ and Tuğba KIRPINAR)


Cevdet YILMAZ and Tuğba KIRPINAR

From the Netherlands to Karaman: Remigration, Definite Return and Social Adaptation1

1 Introduction

Migration remains important in sociology as a hot study topic. Although numerical data on migration and migrants attract many people, the experiences of different countries and cultures on migration correspond to a sociology that is more than the sum of migration statistics. In this context, national and global experiences related to migration have made 272 million people, namely 3.5 %2 of the world population, as international migrants in 2019. Within this global picture, unequivocally, Turkey is historically a country of migration. Turkey faced different sociological facts by migration since its founding as an independent nation-state. Starting in the 1950s, labor migration to European countries occupy an important place in Turkey’s history of migration. The Netherlands is one of the countries where Turkish workers migrate intensely. First migrations made from Turkey to the Netherlands in 1960 began as temporary in nature for both countries. Turkish workers thought that they would return to their country after a while. According to the labor agreements, the residence permits of the workers were limited to two years. However, these permissions started to be renewed every two years, and passport periods were extended. In this context, the temporary labor period became permanent. Also, with the oil crisis that took place in 1973, the employment of new workers were stopped. Instead of returning to Turkey, the Turkish workers living in the Netherlands...

You are not authenticated to view the full text of this chapter or article.

This site requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books or journals.

Do you have any questions? Contact us.

Or login to access all content.