Insights from the International Competence Network of Tourism Research and Education (ICNT)
Edited By Michael Lück and Claire Liu
The International Competence Network of Tourism Research and Education (ICNT) covers a wide range of research expertise in the fields of tourism, hospitality and events management. ICNT’s sixth book showcases a kaleidoscope of tourism and hospitality topics, ranging from tourism education to sustainable tourism, wildlife tourism, Brexit and tourism, and to travel intermediation, tourist motivation and experiences. The book explains the way tourism and hospitality are understood in different countries around the world. Consequently, this book stimulates thought and discussion on tourist experiences and management, from the viewpoint of various stakeholders. It provides a wealth of new knowledge and will be a valuable resource for students, academics, researchers and industry members alike.
Towards more sustainable marine mammal tourism in New Zealand – reviewing the literature and identifying the gaps
Yasmine M. Elmahdy, Mark B. Oramsand Michael Lück
Marine mammal tourism in New Zealand has grown rapidly, with tourists utilising different viewing platforms (e.g. boat-based, land-based, air-based and in-water encounters) to view, swim with, and photograph marine mammals. New Zealand has been often held up internationally as a model country, having both the Marine Mammals Protection Act (MMPA; New Zealand Government, 1978) and associated Marine Mammals Protection Regulations (MMPR; New Zealand Government, 1992), which aim to protect and conserve marine mammals via controlling and managing all marine mammal tourism operations. Despite this framework, a wide range of studies conducted in New Zealand have shown that marine mammal tourism activities have had adverse effects on the targeted species due to alterations in behaviour, movement and reproductive success. Furthermore, various studies have demonstrated that the regulations are frequently violated by marine mammal tour operators. Consequently, the sustainability of the industry is in question. This chapter provides a review of marine mammal tourism, its management and its impacts on marine mammals within the New Zealand context.
Marine mammal tourism comprises “tours by boat, air or from land, with some commercial aspect, to see and/or listen to marine mammals” (Jefferies, 2016, p. 137). In recent decades, tourists’ desire to view and interact with marine mammals in the wild has driven strong growth in marine mammal tourism (Constantine & Bejder, 2008; Lundquist, 2014; Martinez, Orams, & Stockin, 2011; Orams, 1997). Cetaceans (whales, dolphins and porpoises) are the main target species...
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