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Theodicy - From a Logical Point of View


Paul Weingartner

The aim of the book is to refute the claim that God’s omniscience, omnipotence and benevolence on the one hand and the existence of evil on the other are together inconsistent. This is shown first by unmasking many types of such claims as either logical fallacies or as presupposing false assumptions. Secondly the author formulates God’s attributes of omniscience, omnipotence and benevolence  and the existence of 10 types of evil in an axiomatic system. This contains the theorems about God’s knowledge, will, causation and benevolence without leading to any inconsistency. It proves the compatibility between God’s attributes of omniscience, omnipotence and benevolence with the fact of existence of evil. The author offers a consistency proof for the whole axiomatic system with the help of a model in which all axioms and theorems are satisfied.
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0. Introduction


This book is concerned with the problem of theodicy. It can be put into the question: Why is there evil if God is omnipotent and all-good? Or: Why is there evil if God is omniscient, omnipotent and all-good? The meaning of the word “theodicy” (from Greek) contains a task: it is the task to defend the compatibility of God’s attributes—especially those of omnipotence and benevolence—with the fact of occurring evil in the world. This book is an attempt to fulfill this task.

After a short discussion of the task of theodicy (ch.1), this task will be carried out in six chapters as follows:

Chapters 2 and 3 discuss arguments against the compatibility between God’s attributes and the existence of evil. Chapters 4 and 5 offer an axiomatic system of theodicy. Chapter 6 shows that this axiomatic system is consistent. More accurately, chapter 2 shows that many arguments against the compatibility of God’s attributes with the existence of evil are logical fallacies. Chapter 3 shows that many arguments against this compatibility rest on false assumptions concerning definitions of God, of First Cause, of First Being, concerning an All-Willing or All-Causing God or concerning the elimination of all evil. Chapter 4 offers an axiomatic system with the axioms that God is omniscient, omnipotent, and all-good. The respective axioms contain necessary conditions for these attributes. Further axioms deal with God’s will, God’s causation, God’s power, and God’s love. Chapter 5 continues the axiomatic system with respect to...

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